N & E
Napoleon & Empire

Battlefields of the Napoleonic wars

Photographing battlefields of the Napoleonic era, two centuries later, is not easy because they evolved as the landscapes of the countryside but also as our cities...

Parade near the Lion's Mound at Waterloo
Parade near the Lion's Mound at Waterloo

Some have remained in a state close to that fighters roamed at the time: either because they have been protected (Waterloo) or because their rurality has avoided them, for now, a too visible transformation (Marengo, Austerlitz, Eckmühl, Friedland, Champaubert...). Of course, some electrical or telephone poles and wires, some antennas or satellite dishes, some cars or tractors, some advertisement billboards were added to those places (one must move with the times, even in the countryside); but the photo retouching softwares can often remove them, so we can see before us a state close to that as valiant veterans, and the Emperor himself, saw.

But alas it is not of same everywhere. Cities, especially, have been greatly transformed, sometimes even in their historical center. Some quintupled or tenfold of size (Alessandria, Mantua, Vienna and its surroundings, Leipzig, Dresden, Vitoria, Laon, Montereau ...), others were disfigured during subsequent conflicts (Reims during World War I, Ulm, Dresden and Leipzig during World War II). Housing estates have flourished even in the countryside (Wagram, Vauchamps); when this is not one of those awful commercial areas, over several dozen acres, that has settled over much of the battlefield (La Favorita near Mantua, Mont-St-Pierre at Tinqueux near Reims). Then, a church, a few walls, a piece of land are all that remains to be seen... for how long?

We have not visited all the Napoleonic battlefields, far from it. Our next years will be devoted to enriching the iconography. Then some younger persons will take over from us, we hope so, to complete this work. Because images never die.

Enjoy your visit!

 Visited in 2012-2014 

France ARCIS-SUR-AUBE (20 and 21 March 1814)

The battlefield is located on the left bank of the river Aube, therefore to the south of it. It stretches in a semi-circle around Arcis: Villette to the west (on the road to Méry-sur-Seine), Nozay to the south-west and Mesnil-la-Comtesse to the south-east (on both sides of the road to Troyes), Torcy-le-Grand and Torcy-le-Petit to the east (towards Brienne). The land is absolutely flat.

A single bridge, in Arcis itself, makes it possible to reach the right bank of the Aube. During the battle, a temporary bridge had been thrown over the river near Villette.

  1. Arcis-sur-Aube: the church, downtown  [48.53667, 4.14197]
  2. Arcis-sur-Aube: the castle   [today the City Hall]
  3. Arcis-sur-Aube: the bridge over the river Aube  
  4. The river Aube 
  5. The battlefield, south of Arcis, towards Villette 
  6. Dommartin 
  7. Méry-sur-Seine 
  8. Mesnil-la-Comtesse: the village  and its surroundings 
  9. Nozay 
  10. Plancy-l'Abbaye 
  11. Torcy-le-Grand 
  12. Villette 
 Visited in 2012, 2013 and 2016 

Italy ARCOLE (15 to 17 November 1796)

The famous Arcole bridge spans the Alpone torrent, which flows in a north-south direction before going to throw itself into the Adige river, a few kilometers south-east of Ronco all'Adige. The village is entirely located to the east of the Alpone, therefore on its left bank. Visited in summer, the level of the latter was very low, but in mid-November 1796 it was certainly not the same!

The bridge itself still retained its two piers in 2013, but its deck, made of wood during the battle, was concreted (as were the banks). Alas, during our visit in 2016 it had been replaced by a bridge with a single arch in reinforced concrete and corten steel, no longer having anything to do with the historic bridge known to Bonaparte and Augereau... The surrounding marshes have dried up for a long time, and all the land is now cultivated.

  1. Albaredo 
  2. Arcole: the bridge [45.35728, 11.27773] in 2012-2013, seen from the eastern bank  and from the western bank 
  3. Arcole : the bridge in 2016, seen from upstream  and downstream 
  4. Arcole: the outlet of the bridge on the left (east) bank held by the Austrians  and on the right bank (west, held by the French)  . At the time they were swamps
  5. Arcole: obelisk erected in 1810 at the outlet of the bridge   on the right bank, to the west, and the commemorative plaques   affixed on it
  6. Arcole: the outlet of the bridge on the eastern bank of the river Alpone  and the village 
  7. Arcole: the Alpone river, upstream the bridge  and downstream  , and several kilometers further its confluence with the Adige river 
  8. Arcole: the Palazzo Ruffo  and a vintage house 
  9. Caldiero : the village  and the Monte Rocca 
  10. Colognola 
  11. The locality named Porcil 
  12. Ronco all'Adige: Napoléon Bonaparte's headquarters during the battle and the following day 
  13. San Bonifacio 
  14. San Giacomo 
  15. San Martino 
  16. San Michele-extra 
  17. San Stefano di Zimella 
  18. Villafranca di Verona: Napoléon Bonaparte's headquarters the evening before the battle 
Aerial video of the Arcole battlefield Aerial panorama of the Arcole battlefield
 Visited in 2014 

Austria ASPERN-ESSLING (21 and 22 May 1809)

The Battle of Aspern-Essling is called Battle of Aspern by German speakers and Essling by French speakers. The violent and deadly clashes took place in and around these two villages, north of the Danube [they are now part of the 22nd district of Vienna], as well as in Gross-Enzersdorf, a little further east. Demographic and urban developments mean that unfortunately, at the start of the 21st century, it is very difficult for visitors to imagine themselves on the battlefield, and it is necessary to move a few hectometers north of Eßlinger Hauptstraße to find a few remaining fields between residential areas.

Remains the island of Lobau, further south, between the Danube [nowadays canalized] and an arm of it, which will delight the Napoleonic hiker or cyclist. This area of four by three kilometers, made of woods and swamps, crossed by roads and dirt paths, has remained in a state close to that experienced by French soldiers, or the famous writer Honoré de Balzac who visited it in 1835. The Austrians did things well on the occasion of the centenary commemoration in 1909, since several stone markers were erected at places affected by the preparations for the battle, or the retreat which followed it. The island is now classified, so we can be optimistic for the future.

  1. Aspern: the church  
  2. Aspern: the cemetery  and the Sebastian chapel 
  3. Aspern: the Lion, sculpture honoring the Austrian fighters 
  4. Aspern: obelisk in memory of the Austrian soldiers 
  5. Bisamberg 
  6. Breitenlee , where Archduke Charles established his headquarters
  7. Battlefield, north of the Lobau 
  8. The river Danube    (© 2014 Michèle Grau-Ghelardi)
  9. Essling: the church  and the castle , on both sides of main street
  10. Essling: the Granary   [48.21597, 16.52416] where the French have valiantly withstood the Austrian assaults
  11. Gross-Enzersdorf: the village , the church  and the battlefield between Essling and Gross-Enzersdorf 
  12. Kagran: inn havin hosted Napoléon 
  13. The Lobau Island: landscapes           
  14. The Lobau Island: memorial stones : Napoleon's headquarters , powder reserve , French bridgehead , French cemetery 
  15. The plain of Marchfeld  
  16. Markgrafneusiedl: Archduke Charles' headquarters 
  17. Süssenbrunn 
 Visited in 2017 and 2022 

Germany AUERSTAEDT (14 October 1806)

Many thanks to Mrs. Christiane Deshaies-Da Luz for the photos she provided us to put on the website.

Auerstaedt [now Auerstedt] is a village located some thirty kilometers north of Jena, a German town in northern Thuringia, where another Napoleonic victory took place on the same day. The battlefield, which is located to the north and east of the village, is moderately hilly and crossed by a stream called the Lissbach.

  1. Apolda: general view  and the church 
  2. Auerstaedt: the castle [Rittergut]  , that served as Prussian HQ before and during the battle
  3. Auerstaedt: the old post , a street , the church  and the little museum dedicated to the battle 
  4. The surroundings of Auerstaedt: views of the battlefield    
  5. Eckartzberga: the castle , the inn where Napoleon stayed  and the battlefield on the road to Gernstedt 
  6. Gernstedt: the church , the battlefield around   and stele at General von Kalkreuth's Reserve Corps  
  7. Hassenhausen: general view  , the High Street [Obergasse]  leading to the old presbytery, now a museum of the battle 
  8. Hassenhausen: the monument commemorating the battle , the Prussian stele , the Blücher stele   and the Gudin stele  
  9. Between Hassenhausen and Taugwitz: the battlefield   , the Wartensleben stele   and the Brunswick monument, erected on the spot where the prince was seriously injured  [51.12492, 11.64641]
  10. Kösen: the river Saale    and hthe bridge over it   
  11. Kösen: the pass  and the battlefield  above the city, southwest of it
  12. The Lissbach river  between Sonnendorf and Sulza
  13. Punschrau: view of the village  and the mill having witnessed the fighting 
  14. Rehehausen: general view 
  15. The Sonnenberg: pastures , vineyard , and stele at the Brouard brigade of the Morand division  
  16. Spielberg: general view , the village  and the St Martin church 
  17. Spielberg: the battlefield  and the Friant stele  
  18. Sulza: the village  and the Oswald stele 
  19. Tauchwitz [Taugwitz]: general view  , the entrance to the village  and its church 
Aerial video of the Auerstaedt battlefield Aerial panorama of the Auerstaedt battlefield
 Visited in 2014 

Czech Republic AUSTERLITZ (2 December 1805)

The battle of Austerlitz was fought over a very large area, east of Brünn [Brno] in southern Moravia. The combat area is roughly in the shape of a point-down triangle whose base, to the north, is the Brno-Olomouc road, and the point, to the south, corresponds to the village of Satschann [Zatcany]. Between the center of the triangle and its right edge, the elongated plateau of Pratzen [Prace], oriented SW-NE, overhangs the rest of the area, which is quite hilly, by about 80 meters.

Contemplating – if it isn't raining – the sunrise above this plateau, for example from the road [49.12917, 16.73428] Kobelnitz [Kobylnice]-Sokolnitz [Sokolnice], certainly constitutes the the ultimate in Napoleonic tourism

  1. Aujest [Újezd u Brna]: downtown , the St-Antony chapel  and the surrounding fields 
  2. Austerlitz [Slavkov u Brna]: the castle, Napoléon's headquarters after the battle  
  3. Austerlitz [Slavkov u Brna]: the St-Urban chapel , French look-out before the battle
  4. Birnbaum [Hrušky u Brna]: the village 
  5. Birnbaum [Hrušky u Brna]: the swamps 
  6. Birnbaum [Hrušky u Brna]: the battlefield  
  7. Blasowitz [Blažovice]: the village 
  8. Bosenitz [Tvarožná]: the church 
  9. Bosenitz [Tvarožná]: the Santon hill [49.188397, 16.76375]  , its chapel  and the General Valhubert memorial monument, in front of the hill 
  10. The Gandia Inn [Osada Kandie] [49.18722, 16.70611]   where Napoleon positioned himself on November 29
  11. The Goldbach creek  , which runs through the battlefield, west of the Pratzen Heights
  12. Holubitz [Holubice]: the village , its church  and the monument to Joachim Murat  with a medallion bearing his image 
  13. Horka [49.18111, 16.72839]: Napoléon's headquarters the day before the battle  
  14. Hostieradek [Hosterádky-Rešov]: the village 
  15. Jirschikowitz [Jirikovice]: the main street 
  16. Kobelnitz [Kobylnice u Brna]: a farm within the village 
  17. Kruh: the hamlet 
  18. Krzenowitz [Krenovice]: the village  and the St-Lawrence church 
  19. Krzenowitz [Krenovice]: former Spacil farm, which hosted Kutuzov's headquarters   and the statue of Kutuzov downtown 
  20. Krzenowitz [Krenovice]: a french cannon, a relic of the battle  
  21. Krzenowitz [Krenovice]: the battlefield  
  22. Krzenowitz [Krenovice]: place called "The Kutuzov Cross": the roman cross  and panorama  from this location
  23. The Littawa river  , east of the battlefield, which fed the ponds of Satschann
  24. Marxdorf or Maxdorf [Dvorska]: the village 
  25. Menitz [Menín]: the church 
  26. Posoritz: the village  and its church 
  27. Pratzen [Prace]: the village , the Holy-Cross church  and a field nearby 
  28. Pratzen [Prace]: the Pratzen Heights    and the Peace Monument which was erected upon them 
  29. Pratzen [Prace]: sunrise (the famous "Soleil d'Austerlitz") over the Pratzen Heights      
  30. Puntowitz [Ponetovice]: the main street 
  31. The convent of Raygern  near which stood Davout the day before the battle
  32. The Roketnice creek , near Puntowitz
  33. Satschann [Zatcany]: the church of the village  and the famous ponds , now dried up and cultivated
  34. Scharatitz [Šaratice]: the village , the church , and the battlefield 
  35. Schlapanitz [Šlapanice]: Marshal Soult's headquarters  and the monument to Jean-Dominique Larrey 
  36. Sokolnitz [Sokolnice]: the former granary 
  37. Sokolnitz [Sokolnice]: the castle  and the place where french artilery stood  over its Eastern walls
  38. Surroundings of Sokolnitz [Sokolnice]: the battlefield at dawn   
  39. Stará Posta   , a posthouse near Posoritz
  40. Stare Vinohrady , a hill where General Rapp presented to Napoleon the flags taken from the enemy
  41. Telnitz [Telnice]: the village 
  42. Telnitz [Telnice]: ponds between Telnitz and Menitz  
  43. Turas [Brno-Turany]: the church 
  44. Walspitz or Welspitz [Velešovice]: the village 
  45. Waschan [Vážany nad Litavou]: the village  and the battlefield  
  46. Zbeischow or Sbischow [Zbýšov u Slavkova]: the village  
  47. North of Zbýšov: place called "The Three Emperors" [49.14130, 16.79380]: memorial monument  which was inaugurated in 2005 for the bicentenary of the battle, and the panorama  from this point
  48. The Zuran mound [49.17979, 16.73842]  , from which Napoleon harangued his troops in the evening of December 1st (memorial monument ) then led the battle the following day until noon
  49. The Zuran mound: the wonderful panorama     one can see from this strategic location
  50. After the battle:

  51. Spaleny Mlyn ("Burned Mill") at Januv Dvur  where Napoleon and Emperor Francis II met on December 4, under a lime tree   to discuss peace
The Austerlitz battlefield
The Austerlitz battlefield
Video of the Austerlitz battlefield Panorama of the Austerlitz battlefield
 Visited in 2018 

Spain BAILÉN (19-22 July 1808)

Bailén (or Baylén) is an Andalusian town located nowadays in the province of Jaén, about forty kilometers north of it.

The battlefield is moderately rugged but above all very arid. Nowadays the cultivation of the olive tree is omnipresent, much more intensive than at the time.

  1. Bailén: The Cerrajón hill  , south of the battlefield
  2. Bailén: The Haza Walona (or Valona) hill  , also south of the battlefield, east of Cerrajón hill
  3. Bailén: the locality Cruz Blanca  [38.09234, -3.79165], center of the battlefield
  4. Bailén: the hills named Zumacar Chico , north of the main road, and Zumacar Grande , even further north
  5. Bailén: the City Hall , and the parish church of the Incarnation  in which rest since 1963 the remains of General Castaños
  6. Bailén: the palm grove  leading to the monument commemorating General Castaños   
  7. Bailén: the chapel Ermita limpia y pura   where according to tradition General Claude François Dupré (or Duprès), mortally wounded during the battle, would be buried, and its commemorative plaque 
  8. Bailén: the museum of the battle , the monument to General Reding de Biberegg  and the one to José de San Martín , future Argentine general and statesman, who fought in this battle as a captain
  9. The route  leading to the Rumblar valley  and the fields around  
  10. The river Rumblar   and the current bridge over it   
  11. Ventorrillo , a hamlet west of the battlefield, and its surroundings  
  12. After the battle:

  13. Vilanueva de la Reina: the post relay  where the talks were held after the battle, and the fresco in azulejos  commemorating his event
 Visited in 2016 

Italy BASSANO (8 September 1796)

Bassano del Grappa is located in Veneto, at the foot of the Vicentine Prealps, on the Brenta River. This very picturesque town is a popular vacation spot for Venetians.

  1. The Brenta valley above Bassano del Grappa    
  2. North of Bassano del Grappa: the plain  between the Grappa massif and the Brenta valley
  3. Bassano del Grappa: geneal view , the castle tower  and the Ponte Vecchio (or Ponte degli Alpini) [45.76750, 11.73118] over the Brenta 
  4. After the battle:

  5. General Bonaparte's HQ at the end of the fights  and its commemorative plaque 
Aerial video of the Bassano battlefield Aerial panorama of the Bassano battlefield
 Visited in 2022 

Germany BAUTZEN (20-21 May 1813)

Bautzen [Budyšin in Sorbian] is a town in Saxony 60 kilometers east of Dresden. At the time, it was a large town of some 10,000 inhabitants.

The battlefield, moderately hilly and fairly sparsely wooded, is to the east of the city; the various villages there remain preserved for the moment, due to their rural nature.

  1. Baruth: the manor 
  2. Between Baruth and Weissenberg: the battlefield    
  3. Bautzen: the commemorative monument at the cemetery  
  4. Bautzen: the stone bridge 
  5. Gleina: an aerial view of the village 
  6. Gleina: the Windmühlenberg   [51.23957, 14.55108]
  7. Hochkirch: the village 
  8. Jenkowitz: the Monarchenhügel  
  9. Jenkowitz: a period house, in ruins 
  10. Kreckwitz: the battlefield 
  11. Kreckwitz: the commemoratie monument   and panel 
  12. Between Kreckwitz and Pliesskowitz: the battlefield   
  13. Malschwitz: general view 
  14. A pond between Malschwitz and Pliesskowitz 
  15. Niederkaina: views of the battlefield from the Napoleonsberg (or Schafsberg)   
  16. Preititz: the manor  and the informative panel 
  17. Purschwitz: the battlefield 
  18. Purschwitz (Klein-) [Neupurschwitz]: the inn where Napoleon set up his HQ after the battle  and a commemorative stone  nearby
  19. Rackel: a horse on the battlefield 
  20. Rodewitz: the battlefield 
  21. Weißenberg: the village 
  22. Wurschen: aerial view , the Wasserschloss castle  which served as the headquarters of the Prussian army, and a nearby pond 
Aerial video of the Bautzen battlefield Aerial panorama of the Bautzen battlefield
 Visited in 2017 

Spain BODÓN (EL-) (25 September 1811)

Many thanks to Mrs. Florence Thévenot († 2021) for the photos she provided us to put on the website.

El Bodón is a village located about fifteen kilometers southwest of Ciudad Rodrigo, a fortified town then besieged by the troops of General Wellington (southwest of the current region of Castile and León, near the border with Portugal).

The battlefield is rugged and very wooded for the region.

  1. The village of El Bodón   and its church 
  2. The battlefield      west of the village, and the path through it  
  3. A possible descendant of one of the horses of Louis Pierre de Montbrun's cavalry  
  4. The commemorative monument    [40.49579, -6.60743] erected in 2011 for the bicentenary of the battle, and its bas-relief plaques     which illustrate the fights.
 Visited in 2012, 2013 and 2016

Italy BORGHETTO (30 May 1796)

The fighting took place at Valeggio-sul-Mincio, a small town twenty-five kilometers southwest of Verona, where Bonaparte had established his Headquarters, in which he was almost captured. Then below the town, at a place called Borghetto (literally "Little Town") where the Mincio, widened by several artificial thresholds, is crossed by the Visconti bridge [Ponte Visconteo] built in the fourteenth century, 650 meters long and 20 wide, nowadays a road [Strada Viscontea].

The very picturesque hamlet of Borghetto includes several water mills, now restored, and is dominated by the imposing castle [Castello Scaligero] of Valeggio, built in the thirteenth century. It is part of the club "I Borghi più belli d'Italia" ("The most beautiful villages in Italy").

  1. Borghetto: the strada Viscontea    [45.35488, 10.72505] that spans the Mincio river
  2. Borghetto: the edges of the Mincio river   
  3. Borghetto: aerial view of the village 
  4. Borghetto: the village  
  5. The river Mincio downstream Borghetto  
  6. Mantua, seen from San Giorgio bridge over the Mincio river 
  7. Valeggio sul Mincio: the castle  
  8. Valeggio sul Mincio: headquarters of General Napoléon Bonaparte  
  9. Villafranca di Verona: the walls  
  10. Villafranca di Verona: plaque at General Bonaparte's HQ 
Aerial video of the Borghetto battlefield Aerial panorama of the Borghetto battlefield
 Visited in 2012-2014 

France BRIENNE (29 January 1814)

Recall that Brienne, located 37 kilometers east-northeast of Troyes, is first of all the city which welcomed the young Bonaparte to his military school; also a visit to the small museum that the building houses today will not fail to move the Napoleonic tourist...

As for the battle of 1814, it was held at the castle and its terraces which dominate the city, and in the streets of it. Clashes also took place to the north-east of the city, in the woods of Maizières, and to the north, in Rances. The rather limited surface area of the battlefield resulted in numerous very violent hand-to-hand combats, which resulted in Blücher almost being captured and Napoleon killed by a Cossack.

  1. Brienne-le-Château: downtown 
  2. The castle of Brienne [nowadays a psychiatric hospital] [48.39318, 4.52388]: day  and night 
  3. The battlefield:   
  4. Brienne-la-Vieille: the village 
  5. Road between Brienne and Maizières: the place where Napoleon almost fell victim to a Cossack's lance on the evening of the fighting , and the commemorative stone 
  6. Maizières-lès-Brienne: the Saint-Julien-l'Hospitalier church  and the rectory , where Napoléon spent the night following the battle
  7. Rances: the church 
Aerial video of the Brienne battlefield Aerial panorama of the Brienne battlefield
 Visited in 2017 

Portugal BUÇACO (or BUSSACO) (27 September 1810)

Buçaco is a village in central Portugal, between Porto and Lisbon [Lisboa], in the middle mountains (Serra de Buçaco).

The battlefield is tormented and very wooded, the forest of Buçaco, now classified, containing hundreds of different species, planted in the 17th century by the Carmelites of the nearby abbey [the convent is nowadays adjacent to a luxury hotel built at the end of the 19th century].

  1. The forest of Buçaco   , which occupies most of the battlefield
  2. The mill of Sula   where the English general Craufurd stood, the commemorative plaque  and the panorama from this strategic point       
  3. The mill of Moura  , southeast of the previous one, command post of Marshal André Masséna, the interior of the mill , the commemorative plaques   and the panorama from this location   
  4. The road leading through the forest , to General Wellington's headquarters at the start of the battle   [40.35062, -8.34625], the commemorative plaque , and the panorama from this location      
  5. Buçaco: the Battle Memorial   erected in 1873, and the inscriptions   appearing there
  6. Buçaco: the church Nossa Senhora da Vitória e Almas  which served as a hospital after the battle, and the adjoining military museum  , inaugurated by King Manuel II for the centenary of the battle in 1910
  7. Buçaco: the hero of the battle gave his name to a village street  ...
 Visited in 2012, 2016 and 2022 

Italy CASTIGLIONE (5 August 1796)

Castiglione delle Stiviere is a town located about twelve kilometers south of Lake Garda, on a road leading to Mantua [Mantova]. A few kilometers east of Castiglione are Solferino and San Cassiano, south-east Guidizzolo, south Medole. It was in this quadrilateral, including Monte Medolano in its western quadrant (in fact a hill) and comprising the rest of the Medole plain, that most of the fighting took place.

  1. Castiglione delle Stiviere: the cathedral , edificated in 1761, and the battlefield at the foot of the village 
  2. Castiglione delle Stiviere: Napoléon Bonaparte's headquarters, Piazza Colonna   [today Piazza Ugo Dallò] [45.39182, 10.49038] on August 4 and 5.
  3. Cavriana , southeast of Solferino
  4. Grole: aerial view of this village , which is located halfway between Castiglione and Solferino
  5. Guidizzolo , south of Cavriana
  6. Medole: the romanesque church Santa Maria della Pieve  and the battlefield nearby 
  7. The Monte Medolano seen from the north  and from the south 
  8. At the bottom of Monte Medolano: a farm  and the plaque commemorating the battle  (as well as that of Solferino on June 24, 1859, under Napoleon III)
  9. The road from Brescia to Mantua near Castiglione delle Stiviere 
  10. Solferino: the battlefield below the village   
  11. Solferino: the Town Hall square [Piazza Luigi Torelli]  and the Piazza del Castello  which overlooks the village
Aerial video of the Castiglione battlefield Aerial panorama of the Castiglione battlefield
 Visited in 2012-2015 

France CHAMPAUBERT (10 February 1814)

The small village of Champaubert constituted, in 1814, an important strategic crossroads, at the intersection of the east-west road Châlons-Montmirail-Meaux-Paris and the north-south road Reims-Epernay-Sézanne-Troyes.

The terrain witnessing the battle, moderately hilly, quite wooded in places, is located on either side of these two axes, within a radius of six kilometers around Champaubert: to the west as far as Fromentières , to the north to La Caure, to the east to Etoges, to the south to the Petit-Morin stream via Baye, to the southwest to Bannay and its surroundings.

  1. The Andrecy or Andecy farm 
  2. Bannay: the hamlet 
  3. Baye: the castle 
  4. The Baye forest  
  5. La Caure , north of Champaubert
  6. Les Converts 
  7. Champaubert: the village 
  8. Champaubert: the Blue House or Cannonball House [48.88093, 3.77617], Napoléon's headquarters in the evening of the battle 
  9. Champaubert: memorial column 
  10. Champaubert: the battlefield between Champaubert and Baye at its south  and between Champaubert and Etoges at its east 
  11. Fromentières 
  12. The Grande Laye woods 
  13. The Grange de Vaux farm 
  14. The Hannoterie farm 
  15. The Malet woods 
  16. Montpertuis: the hamlet 
  17. The Petit-Morin creek  and the bridge over it 
  18. The Potence woods 
  19. The swamps of Saint-Gond  , around the Petit-Morin
  20. Saint-Prix 
Aerial video of the Champaubert battlefield Aerial panorama of the Champaubert battlefield
 Visited in 2013-2014 

France CHATEAU-THIERRY (12 February 1814)

Château-Thierry is a town on the banks of the river Marne, on the road from Reims to Paris.

The fighting began ten kilometers south-southeast of the city, on the banks of the Dolloir (a tributary of the Marne), in the Viffort-Montfaucon-Les Caquerets area. The Prussians withdrew to the Nesles plateau, around which the confrontation became particularly harsh. Once the plateau had been conquered, the French pursued the Prussians and Russians all along the road leading to Château-Thierry, including in the Faubourg de Marne (island between the river itself and an arm called Fausse-Marne). What remained of the allies managed to reach Château-Thierry, on the right bank, by the only bridge between the suburb and the city, and immediately destroyed the work.

  1. Les Caquerets: the hamlet , the memorial monument at Napoleon Square  and the battlefield 
  2. Château-Thierry: the town 
  3. Château-Thierry: the river Marne  and the bridge  over it, linking the suburb to the city proper
  4. Château-Thierry: the Fausse-Marne  and the bridge  [49.04085, 3.40448] over it
  5. Château-Thierry: the former Hôtel de la Poste , Napoleon's headquarters the days following the battle
  6. The Dolloir river  and a bridge over it 
  7. Essises: general view of the village and of the battlefield 
  8. Les Grandes Noues , south of Nesles-le-Château
  9. The Lumeron farm   that hosted the Emperor in the evening of the battle
  10. Mont-Cel-Enger: the hamlet 
  11. Montfaucon 
  12. The Nesles Heights: the battlefield 
  13. Nesles: the village   
  14. Nesles: memorial monument  where stood the castle [which no longer exists], Napoleon's headquarters
  15. Nogentel: battlefield on the heights of the village 
  16. Norvins: the hamlet 
  17. The Petit-Ballois farm  
  18. The Petites-Noues 
  19. The Trinité farm 
  20. Viffort: the village  , the church  and the Dolloir creek 
  21. Southwest Viffort: the bridge over the Dolloir (Route D1)  and the memorial monument to the troops of Marshal Mortier 
Aerial video of the Château-Thierry battlefield Aerial panorama of the Château-Thierry battlefield
 Visited in 2017 

Portugal CÔA (River) (24 July 1810)

Many thanks to Mrs. Florence Thévenot († 2021) for the photos she provided us to put on the website.

The Côa is a river in northeastern Portugal, a tributary of the Douro, which flows in a south-north direction. Four kilometers from the walled town of Almeida, a three-arched stone bridge [Ponte Grande, or Ponte do Cabeço Negro] crosses this waterway; it is there that the Anglo-Portuguese of General Robert Craufurd confronted the French troops commanded by Marshal Michel Ney. A modern concrete bridge was built in the immediate vicinity, which spoils this superb landscape...

The terrain is very uneven.

  1. The Rio Côa: the banks downstream of the bridge  and the bed of the river below the structure  
  2. A stone cross overlooking the river  
  3. The road leading to the bridge  and the bridge itself    [40.70345, -6.93212]
  4. The surrounding battlefield  
  5. The – particularly hideous – memorial ...
 Visited in 2013 and 2016 

France CRAONNE (7 March 1814)

This battle took place on the Craonne plateau, about twenty kilometers south of Laon, on either side of the Chemin des Dames, in particular around the Vauclair abbey and the Heurtebise farm. A century later even more deadly battles took place in the same places, the villages of Craonne and Ailles being, due to the "progress" of artillery, wiped off the map, and never rebuilt.

This repetition of horrors and the memory of those who perished there ("Marie-Louise" of 1814 and "poilus" of the WW1) make this plateau and the Chemin des Dames a particularly moving memorial site, as if outside time.

  1. Ailles: the village  and the battlefield around 
  2. The Ange Gardien, western end of the Chemin des Dames 
  3. The Buisson-Coquin hillock  and view from that place 
  4. Corbeny , Imperial headquarters in the evening of March 6
  5. The plateau of Craonne  
  6. Craonne: the battlefield  between Vauclair and Hurtebise
  7. The Chemin des Dames (literally, the "Ladies' path") 
  8. The Heurtebise [Hurtebise] farm   and the sunken field 
  9. Heurtebise: monument erected after Word War I  in memory of the "Marie-Louise" (youngest French soldiers in 1814) and the "Poilus" (French soldiers in WW I)
  10. The river Lette [today Ailette] 
  11. Oulches: the village    and the battlefield 
  12. Paissy: the church and the cemetery 
  13. Vassogne: the village 
  14. The Vauclerc [Vauclair] abbey 
  15. The Vauclerc [Vauclair] forest 
  16. The heights of Vauclerc [Vauclair] 
  17. Vauclerc [Vauclair]: mound  [49.44001, 3.76455] topped by a statue of Napoleon , erected at the place of a former mill from where the Emperor viewed the fights
Aerial video of the Craonne battlefield Aerial panorama of the Craonne battlefield
 Visited in 2022 

Germany DRESDEN (26-27 August 1813)

Dresden is a city in Saxony, 190 kilometers south of Berlin, on the river Elbe. Largely destroyed in February 1945 by the Royal Air Force, the historic center has since undergone spectacular reconstruction, particularly since German reunification.

On the other hand, the villages on the battlefield, to the east, south and west of the city, are today suburban neighborhoods, where there is not much left to see. The city's fortifications, for their part, had been demolished in 1815...

  1. Altplauen: the few period houses that still remain 
  2. Bannewitz: the castle of Nöthnitz  , Allied Headquarters
  3. Dresden: the historical center 
  4. Landscapes of the Dresden countryside, south of the metropolis  
  5. The river Elbe near Dresden   
  6. Gittersee: the wood 
  7. The Grosser Garten ("Great garden") in Gruna  
  8. Kleinpestitz: the battlefield  and the Palitzsch estate 
  9. Obergorbitz: some houses in the village 
  10. Omsewitz: the Burgstaedtel , where an old castle was located
  11. Räcknitz: the grave of General Moreau   [51.02312, 13.73554] and a view of the battlefield from this location 
  12. Strehlen: the Kaitzbach stream 
  13. The Weisseritz valley , southwest of Dresden
Aerial video of the Dresden battlefield Aerial panorama of the Dresden battlefield
 Visited in 2015 

Germany ECKMÜHL (22 April 1809)

The village of Eggmühl [current spelling] is located twenty-six kilometers south-southeast of Regensburg, in Bavaria. The fighting took place in an area of four to five kilometers around Eckmühl, then, during the Austrian retreat, on the road leading to Regensburg and on either side of it, as far as Alteglofsheim and Köfering.

The terrain, very hilly and wooded, is crossed by the Grosse Laber river.

  1. Alteglofsheim: the castle   , where Napoleon spent some hours the night after the battle.
  2. Bad Abbach: general view 
  3. Buchhausen: the village  and its surroundings 
  4. Eggmühl: the church , the castle  and the inn facing it 
  5. Eggmühl: the Memorial , a wide walkway leading to a mound  where a Bavarian lion statue   [48.83774, 12.18351] pays tribute to the valiant combatants on both sides
  6. Gailsbach: the village 
  7. The Grosse Laber or Grosse Laaber river  , that meanders through the battlefield 
  8. Hagelstadt: the church 
  9. Köfering: the village 
  10. The church of Lindach  , which served as an observatory to the Emperor, and view of the battlefield from that location 
  11. Luckenpaint: the village  and the battlefield 
  12. Niederleierndorf: the village 
  13. Peising: the village   and its church 
  14. The church of Pfakoffen   and the battlefield close to the village 
  15. Roking [Rogging]: general view of the village , the heights , and the battlefield 
  16. Schierling: the main street 
  17. Stanglmühle: the hamlet  and the supposed place where Marshal Lannes crossed the Gross Laaber 
  18. Unterdeggenbach: the grave of General Cervoni , killed during the battle
  19. Unterlaichling: the village   and the fields between Unterlaichling and Oberlaichling     , where bloody fighting took place
  20. Weilhohe: the village  and its surroundings 
  21. Zaitzkofen: the village  and its castle 
 Visited in 2015 

Germany ELCHINGEN (14 October 1805)

Elchingen [Oberelchingen] is a Bavarian village (bordering Baden-Württemberg) located 8 kilometers north-north-east of Ulm, on the banks of the Danube [Donau]. Built on the hillside, it dominates a meadow, wooded in places, a few hectometers wide, which constitutes the left (north) bank of the river. A bridge [nowadays made of concrete] connects Elchingen to Nersingen, on the other bank. Dominating the village, a Benedictine abbey, then a vast plateau extending north to the small town of Langenau and northwest to the villages of Göttingen and Albeck.

  1. Albeck: the village , a pond  and the battlefield 
  2. Elchingen: the abbey   [48.45246, 10.08719], the plateau  where the abbey stands, and the battlefield  near the plateau
  3. Elchingen: the current bridge over the river Danube , the river upstream  and downstream  of the bridge, and the outlet of the bridge  at the left bank
  4. Elchingen: general view from the sunken meadow , and several views of the meadow, where fierce fighting took place   
  5. Göttingen: the village  
  6. Haslach: view of Oberhaslach  and the woods  facing it ; view of Unterhaslach  and the surrounding woods  
  7. The ravine of Kesselbronn 
  8. Langenau: the town  
  9. Nerenstetten: the village 
  10. Oberfahlheim [City of Nersingen] : the rectory , where Napoleon stayed before the battle
  11. Offenhausen [nowadays at Neu-Ulm] : Das Schlössle  , Napoleon's headquarters during the battle
  12. The Roth river , tributary of the Danube
 Visited in 2015 

Russia EYLAU (8 February 1807)

The battle of Eylau took place in East Prussia [Ostpreußen], within a radius of around ten kilometers around the town of Preußisch Eylau [present-day Bagrationovsk - Багратионовск ].

This territory remained Prussian, then German, until 1945. The outcome of the Second World War meant that it was captured by the Soviets, who shared it with Poland. All the German inhabitants who had not been killed were expelled, and replaced by Soviets (mainly Russians, but also Ukrainians and Belarusians...) to the north and Poles to the south. The current border runs just south of Bagrationovsk, which means that the battlefield is mostly in Russian territory, with a few villages to the south of the field being in Poland.

  1. Althof [Orechowo]: the hamlet  
  2. Althof [Orechowo]: the battlefield , the brook  and the woods 
  3. Auklappen [Maloje Osjornoje]: headquarters of Levin August von Bennigsen  , the hamlet  and the battlefield 
  4. Klein-Sausgarten [Bolschoje-Osjornoje]: memorial cross in memory of the fallen Russian soldiers 
  5. Kutschitten [Znamenskoje]: views of the battlefield   
  6. Lampasch [Nadeschdino]: the entrance to the hamlet  and the battlefield 
  7. Place where stood Melohnkeim [Borowoje, a village that no longer exists]  
  8. Preussisch-Eylau [Bagrationovsk]: general view from the ponds   ; the former local court, Napoleon's headquarters from February 7 to 17  ; a typical prussian house  , hosting today a little museum dedicated to the battle
  9. Preussisch-Eylau [Bagrationovsk]: the castle   , taken on February 7 by the Leval division, and what remains today of the church: the arch of its portal, integrated into an awful factory during the communist era 
  10. Preussisch-Eylau [Bagrationovsk]: the mound where the French 14th Line Regiment was destroyed 
  11. Preussisch-Eylau [Bagrationovsk]: the ponds surrounding the city   
  12. Preussisch-Eylau [Bagrationovsk]: the L'Estocq-Denkmal   [54.37937, 20.65156], memorial monument erected in 1857 by the Prussians in the forest  southeast of the town, where the french batteries stood; three of its faces honoring Generals Bennigsen , L'Estocq  and Dierike 
  13. Preussisch-Eylau [Bagrationovsk]: monument to General Bagration   , who gave its name to the town when it was renamed by the Russians, and tablet nearby 
  14. Preussisch-Eylau [Bagrationovsk]: in the current cemetery, a stone honoring French and Russian soldiers fallen during the battle of Eylau and the 1812 campaign   
  15. Schmoditten [Ryabinovka]: the village  
  16. The heights of Serpallen [Kaschtanowka, a village that no longer exists, at a few hundred meters from the Polish border] 
  17. Place where stood Tenknitten  [this village no longer exists]
  18. Ziegelhof , a plateau southwest of Eylau [on the current Russo-Polish border], where Napoleon bivouacked on 8 and 9 February
  19. Places traversed by the Russians after the battle, during their retreat towards Koenigsberg [Kaliningrad], from south to north:

  20. Mulhausen [Gwardeiskoje] 
  21. The Frisching [Prochladnaja] river  at Groß Lauth [Newskoje], halfway between Eylau and Königsberg
  22. Wittemberg [Niwenskoje]: the road 
 Visited in 2013 and 2016 

Italy FAVORITA (LA-) (16 January 1797)

The Battle of Favorita takes its name from a 17th century villa, located in the plain north-north-east of Mantua [Mantova], separated from the latter by the Lago di Mezzo (a of the three lakes on the Mincio surrounding the historic town).

The villa, built between 1615 and 1624 by the ducal architect Nicolò Sebregondi, was commissioned by Ferdinand de Gonzaga, sixth Duke of Mantua, who planned to transfer the court there. If we compare the current state of the building to the engravings from the Napoleonic era, we see that the two wings and the right part of the main building have disappeared (during a period between 1821 and 1839).

  1. La Favorita: the battlefield    
  2. La Favorita: the villa      [45.18476, 10.8015]
  3. Mantua, seen from the San Giorgio bridge over the Mincio river 
  4. Mantua: the ducal palace  
  5. Mantua: the Castello di San Giorgio  
  6. Montata , east of the villa
  7. Sant'Antonio , west of the villa
  8. San Giorgio di Mantova , east of the battlefield
Aerial video of La Favorita battlefield Aerial panorama of La Favorita battlefield
 Visited in 2013 

France FÈRE-CHAMPENOISE (25 March 1814)

Fère-Champenoise is a little town located in Champagne crayeuse ("Chalky Champagne"), between the Marne and Aube valleys, 79 kilometers south of Reims and 76 kilometers north of Troyes.

The battlefield extends to the west, north and east of it, on the right bank of the Vaure river. It has remained rural, except for its eastern part denatured by the installation of the international airport of Vatry.

  1. Allemant 
  2. Aulnay 
  3. Bannes 
  4. Bergères-les-Vertus 
  5. Bierges 
  6. Blacy 
  7. Bussy-Lettrée 
  8. Chaintrix-Bierges 
  9. Chapelaine 
  10. Clamanges 
  11. Connantre: Saint-Caprais church 
  12. Coole 
  13. Courdemanges 
  14. Dommartin-Lettrée 
  15. Ecury-le-Repos 
  16. Fère-Champenoise: downtown  [48.75495, 3.99060]
  17. Lenharrée 
  18. Lettrée 
  19. Linthes 
  20. Mailly 
  21. Maisons 
  22. Montepreux 
  23. Morains 
  24. Normée 
  25. Notre-Dame 
  26. Semoine 
  27. Sommesous: the village  and the surrounding fields 
  28. The creek La Soude 
  29. Soudé-Sainte-Croix 
  30. Trécon 
  31. Vassimont 
  32. Vatry 
  33. Villeseneux 
 Visited in 2015 

Russia FRIEDLAND (14 June 1807)

Friedland [nowadays Pravdinsk - Правдинск] is a town in East Prussia [Ostpreußen], about thirty kilometers east of Preussisch Eylau [Bagrationovsk - Багратионовск]. It suffered the same events as the latter (see above in "Eylau") during World War II, the same exodus of its centuries-old population, the same repopulation under the Stalinist era, becoming in the same way a Russian town in the Kaliningrad Oblast.

  1. The Domerauer woods 
  2. Domnau [Domnovo]: the village  and the monument in memory of the Russian soldiers 
  3. Friedland [Pravdinsk]: St-George church   
  4. Friedland [Pravdinsk]: houses of the Prussian era 
  5. Friedland [Pravdinsk]: headquarters of General Levin August von Bennigsen  and those of Napoleon after the battle (under renovation during our visit), seen from the outside  and from the inside 
  6. Friedland [Pravdinsk]: statue of Marshal Kutuzov    in the eponymous street (although he has not participated in the campaign in Poland)
  7. Friedland [Pravdinsk]: memorial stele to the Russian soldiers  and, in the municipal park [Gorodskoï Park], monument to General Mazowski   who died during the battle
  8. Friedland [Pravdinsk]: the ponds, north of the city   fed by the Mill creek [Pravda]
  9. Friedland [Pravdinsk]: the river Alle [Lava] upstream  and downstream  of the current bridge 
  10. Friedland [Pravdinsk]: The battlefield seen from Heinrichsdorf [Rovnoje], northwest of Friedland  and from the north 
  11. The ford of Kloschenen [Lukino]    that allowed some of the Russian troops to escape the stranglehold of French, crossing the river Alle, and, nearby, the path to the brickyard (Ziegelei) , where fierce fighting stood
  12. Postehnen [Peredovoje]: the battlefield   and the Mill creek [Pravda] 
  13. The Sortlack forest , seen from Heinrichsdorf [Rovnoje]
  14. After the battle:

  15. Gross-Ottenhagen [Berezowka], through which the Russians retreated: the remains of the church  and the ponds northeast   
  16. Paterswalde [Bolschaja Poljana]  where Napoleon installed his HQ on June 16
A view of the Friedland battlefield
A view of the Friedland battlefield
 Visited in 2015 

Poland GOŁYMIN (26 December 1806)

Golymin is a village in Mazovia, Poland, about 80 kilometers northwest of Warsaw [Warszawa], west of Pułtusk. The battlefield extends mainly from the west to the south of the village. It is flat and moderately wooded.

  1. Garnowo, southwest of Golymin: the hamlet  and the battlefield  
  2. Golymin: the church  [52.80824, 20.87177]
  3. Golymin: the memorial monument  and its text in french 
  4. Wadkowo, west of Golymin: the hamlet  and the battlefield 
 Visited in 2022 

Germany HANAU (30 October 1813)

Hanau is a small town in Hesse located some thirty kilometers east of Frankfurt am Main, in a loop of the Kinzig river, which joins the Main a few kilometers further south. The battlefield, to the northeast and east of Hanau, is very wooded (the Lamboy forest, in particular, having largely been preserved).

  1. Bruchköbel: three views of the village   
  2. The road to Friedberg  an the battlefield  around it
  3. Hanau: the Deutsche Goldschmiedehaus , town hall during the battle, and the Neustaedter Rathaus  [these buildings were reconstructed in the 1950s and 1960s after being largely destroyed by British bombing in March 1945]
  4. Hanau: the current bridge over the Kinzig river, to the west of the historic town 
  5. Hanau: the Herrnmühle   , where many Austro-Bavarians drowned while trying to escape
  6. The main road from Hanau to Gelnhausen , which follows the same route as at the time although somewhat enlarged...
  7. Woods adjacent to the road from Hanau to Gelnhausen  
  8. Issigheim [Niederissigheim]: two views of the village  
  9. The Kinsig river, at Hanau   and its surroundings  
  10. The Lamboy forest: various views    
  11. The Lamboy forest: paths and trails     
  12. Lamboy Forest: location of the historic [no longer existing] bridge over the Kinzig river    [50.13291, 8.95437]
  13. Langenselbold: the castel of prince Carl Friedrich von Isenburg-Birstein  , where Napoleon spent the night of October 29 to 30
  14. Neuhoff: location of the former village   [of which nothing remains, it is nowadays a suburb of Hanau]
  15. Rückingen: a house  and the church 
Aerial video of the Hanau battlefield Aerial panorama of the Hanau battlefield
 Visited in 2015 

Germany HOHENLINDEN (3 December 1800)

Hohenlinden is a village located 34 kilometers east of Munich [München], in Bavaria. The battlefield lies along the west-east road leading to Maitenbeth and Haag in Oberbayern, as well as to the north of it, between the Isen valley in the east and the road leading to Erding in the west. All this in a moderately hilly but above all very wooded region.

  1. Albaching: general view 
  2. Anzing: the church  and the inn  having hosted General Moreau
  3. Bittlbach: general view of the village , its church  and the battlefield 
  4. Buch-am-Buchrain: the village  in a snowstorm
  5. Burgrain: the village and its surroundings 
  6. Ebersberg: general view 
  7. Erding: the Schöner Turm  and downtown area 
  8. Forstern: the village 
  9. Harthofen: the village 
  10. Hörlkofen: the church  
  11. Hohenlinden: the village    [48.15675, 11.99831] and the inn which served as headquarters for General Jean-Victor-Marie Moreau 
  12. Hohenlinden: the memorial monument of the battle   
  13. Surroundings of Hohenlinden: the battlefield       and woods around    
  14. The river Inn , tributary of the Danube
  15. Isen: downtown 
  16. Kreith: the hamlet and the fields around 
  17. Kreuz: the village and the battlefield 
  18. Kronacker: Sankt-Johannes church  
  19. Lengdorf: the village  and the river Isen   which crosses it
  20. Loipfing: the village 
  21. Maitenbeth: the village  and the road to Haag , running through it
  22. Mittbach: the village 
  23. Mitterbuch: the village  and the battlefield 
  24. Neuharting: the hamlet  and a field 
  25. Neustockach: general view of the hamlet and its surroundings  
  26. Niesberg: the battlefield and the village 
  27. Oberndorf: the village 
  28. Parsdorf: the village  and the battlefield 
  29. Reithofen: the church  and the inn 
  30. Sankt-Christoph 
  31. Schnaupping: the village 
  32. Schützen: the hamlet 
  33. The heights of Tading 
  34. Weiher: the village 
  35. Wetting , near Forstern
 Visited in 2014 

Austria HOLLABRUNN (16 November 1805)

This battle, which saw the French of Murat pursuing the Russians of Bagration while harassing them, was held along the road that leads from Vienna [Wien] to Znaïm [Znojmo]. It started north of the town of Hollabrunn, in Suttenbrunn, to continue, more and more towards the north, on a relatively flat ground offering little possibility of shelter, except undulations running from west to east: in Schoengrabern, around the Nexenhof farm and the village of Grund then around Guntersdorf, where it ended.

  1. Grund: the village  and the battlefield 
  2. Guntersdorf: the village 
  3. Hollabrunn: downtown 
  4. The Nexenhof farm   [48.61694, 16.07225]
  5. Schöngrabern: the village , the battlefield around  and the road  to Znaïm
  6. Suttenbrunn 
 Visited in 2017 and 2022 

Germany JENA (14 October 1806)

Many thanks to Mrs. Christiane Deshaies-Da Luz for the photos she provided us to put on the website.

Jena is a city in northern Thuringia, in the Saale valley. The battlefield, which is located northwest of the city, is pretty hilly (hills of Dornberg in the center, Sperlingsberg in the west, Landgrafenberg in the south) and heavily wooded south of the Issestedt-Lützeroda-Closewitz line.

  1. Altengönna: the village  and the battlefield  
  2. Closewitz: the village  and the Dornberg  , a hill where Napoleon was standing during the battle
  3. Between Closewitz and Lützeroda: the prussian Tauentzien stele  
  4. Cospeda: one of the paths leading up to the village , general view  and the little museum  dedicated to the battle
  5. Cospeda: the Landgrafenberg , a hill on top of which  a stele named Napoleonstein  [50.94512, 11.57147] was erected, and views from this strategic location  
  6. Grossromstedt: the village  
  7. Hohlstedt: the village 
  8. Jena: the city   seen from the heights where the fighting took place
  9. Isserstedt: the village  and a surrounding field 
  10. Isserstedt: the forest    , which is nowadays classified
  11. Isserstedt: the Mühlthal , a valley south of the battlefield
  12. Isserstedt: the french Desjardins stele   and the "Saxon cavalry" stele  
  13. Kappellendorf: the village   
  14. Kappellendorf: the Soult-Lannes-Augereau stele   and the Rüchel stele  
  15. Kappellendorf: the Sperlingsberg  and the tower at its summit , commemorating the fallen fighters of Lieutenant General Rüchel's corps, built from donations and inaugurated on October 14, 1907
  16. Between Kappellendorf and Hohlstedt: the Winkel-Denkmal  , inaugurated in 1906, and its plaque  honoring the Saxon Grenadiers and the 5th and 6th Regiments of Foot
  17. Kleinromstedt: the battlefield and the village  far off
  18. Krippendorf: the village  and the battlefield 
  19. Krippendorf: the windmill  , north of the village
  20. Krippendorf: the french Soult stele   and the prussian Kollin stele  
  21. Lehesten: the battlefield , the village  and the church 
  22. Loebstedt: the Saxons' grave  and its plaque 
  23. Lützeroda: the center of the village 
  24. Rödigen: the village  and the battlefield 
  25. Rödigen: the Bissing-Denkmal   
  26. Rödigen: the french Soult stele   and the prussian Holtzendorff one   
  27. Vierzehnheiligen: the village , the church  and the monument to the dead 
  28. Vierzehnheiligen: the french Lannes stele   at the center of the village, and the Ney stele   south of it
  29. Vierzehnheiligen: the Eberhardt-Denkmal , the prussian Grawert stele   and the "Prussian cavalry" stele  
  30. Surroundings of Vierzehnheiligen: the battlefield south of the village  and towards Isserstedt  
  31. North of Vierzehnheiligen, towards the Krippendorf mill: the path called "Europaweg" , planted with cherry trees, which has commemorated friendship between nations since 2010.
Aerial video of the Jena battlefield Aerial panorama of the Jena battlefield
 Visited in 2022 

Germany KLEINSCHKORLOPP (17 June 1813)

This Saxon village, 20 kilometers southwest of Leipzig, saw the Freikorps of Adolf von Lützow nearly destroyed by the Imperial cavalry. The battlefield, close to that of Lützen (see below), is flat and sparsely wooded.

  1. The Battle Memorial   [51.23594, 12.23566]
  2. The battlefield  seen from the Battle Memorial
  3. The monument on the site where the poet Theodor Körner was seriously injured   [51.23323, 12.22592]
 Visited in 2013 

France LAON (9 and 10 March 1814)

The fortified town of Laon is located on an elongated mound along an east-west axis, dominating by a hundred meters the Picardy plain to the north, and a more hilly area to the south. It was then in the hands of the Prussian and Russian army under the orders of Blücher.

The fighting took place on the 9th in Semilly and Clacy, to the south-west of the city, in Leuilly, to the south, and on the ramp of Ardon, at the foot of it. In the evening, Marmont chased the Prussians from Athies, east of Laon, but during the night the latter surprised the French there during the famous "hurrah", chasing them in the plain and the surrounding woods, then towards the southeast to Festieux. On the 10th, it was again in Clacy and Ardon that the belligerents violently opposed..

  1. Ardon: the village  at the foot of Laon, and its church 
  2. Athies: the main street 
  3. Athies: the mound called "Butte aux Vignes" 
  4. Athies: La Mouillée farm  [49.56879, 3.71465] and the battlefield 
  5. Athies: plain  between the village and the forest of Lavergny 
  6. Bruyères 
  7. Chavignon : the town  , a field nearby  and the place where was located the Hôtel St-Pierre , where Napoléon established his HQ in the evening of March 9
  8. Clacy: the village    and the church 
  9. Eppes: the castle of Coucy , where Marmont settled his HQ on March 9 in the evening
  10. Festieux 
  11. The plateau of Laon 
  12. Laon: the fortifications  and St-Martin church 
  13. Laon: tablet  honoring the combatants (© 2011 Cyril Maillet)
  14. Leuilly: the church 
  15. Sémilly: the main street 
Aerial video of the Laon battlefield Aerial panorama of the Laon battlefield
 Visited in 2022 

Germany LEIPZIG (BATTLE OF THE NATIONS) (16-19 October 1813)

Leipzig is a city in Saxony, which had around 32,000 inhabitants during the Napoleonic Wars. The battlefield, very vast and practically flat, surrounds the city (with the exception of the west), most of the villages which gave rise to the fighting being now included in an agglomeration of more than 600,000 inhabitants...

  1. The Colmberg (or Kolmberg)  , between Liebertwolkwitz and Seifertshain, and the Apelstein 7 
  2. Connewitz: the battlefield 
  3. Dölitz : the Torhaus   and the plaque in memory of Marshal Poniatowski 
  4. Dölitz: the Mühlpleisse 
  5. Dösen: the battlefield   and the Apelsteine 3  and 13 
  6. The Galgenberg, southeast of Leipzig, between Liebertwolkwitz and Markkleeberg   where Napoleon stood on October 16, and views from there  
  7. Gautzsch: the bell tower 
  8. Gohlis: the Schlösschen 
  9. Großpösna: a pond  
  10. Güldengossa: the battlefield  
  11. Güldengossa: the russian and prussian monument   and the Apelstein 2  which adjoins it
  12. Güldengossa: the village , the church  and the manor 
  13. Holzhausen: the austrian monument 
  14. Kleinpösna: the battlefield 
  15. Kleinzchocher: the manor  
  16. Leipzig: the river Weiße Elster   which crosses the city, in which Marshal Poniatowski drowned
  17. Leipzig: the monument commemorating the Elster bridge explosion 
  18. Leutzsch: the park    [the mansion was demolished in 1970]
  19. Liebertwolkwitz: a street 
  20. Lindenau: Napoleon's HQ on October 19 , its commemorative plaque  and the nearby Luppe river 
  21. Lössnig: the austrian monument  
  22. Markkleeberg: aerial view , the manor , the church  and the Apelstein 50 
  23. Markkleeberg: the Torhaus   and its commemorative plaques   
  24. Meusdorf: the "Leipzig" monument  and the monument to General Schwarzenberg  
  25. Möckern: the Kugeldenkmal ("cannonball monument") 
  26. The Monarchenhügel, halfway between Liebertwolkwitz and Probstheida: the site , the monument  and the Apelstein 32 
  27. Paunsdorf: the austrian monument 
  28. Probstheida: the Battle of the Nations monument [Völkerschlachtdenkmal]  [51.31235, 12.41329] built from 1898 to celebrate the centenary of the battle
  29. Between Probstheida and the Thonberg: the monument named Napoleonstein   located at the place from where Napoleon observed and directed the fighting on October 18 [the Quandtsche Tabaksmühle, a windmill destroyed during the battle]
  30. Reudnitz: the Napoleon's H.Q.(then the house of the banker Vetter) before the battle, from October 14 to 16  
  31. Schönau: a street  and the church 
  32. Schönefeld: the castle  and the bell tower 
  33. Seifertshain: aerial view , the church  and the sanitary and medical museum 
  34. Stötteritz: the manor  and the church 
  35. Thonberg: the Günz park 
  36. Wachau: the mansion   and the plaque commemorating Marshal Murat 
  37. Wachau: the lime tree in the mansion's park  and the battlefield 
Aerial video of the Leipzig battlefield Aerial panorama of the Leipzig battlefield
 Visited in 2015 and 2019 

Belgium LIGNY (16 June 1815)

Many thanks to Mr. Dominique Timmermans, who made us discover this battlefield in 2015.

The village of Ligny, in Walloon Brabant, is located a dozen kilometers east of the Quatre-Bras crossroads, where Michel Ney confronted the Duke of Wellington on the same day. The battlefield, roughly triangular pointing downwards, is between the road from Nivelles to Namur to the north and the town of Fleurus to the south. It is moderately hilly and wooded, and crossed by a winding stream: the Ligne.

  1. Brye: the village , the Moulin-de-Bussy farm  and the place where the mill was  [dismantled in the nineteenth century and transferred to Limburg] where Blücher and Wellington devised their strategy at midday
  2. Fleurus: the Château de la Paix ("Castle of the Peace")  , Napoléon's headquarters in the evening following the battle, and the Emperor's bedroom  where he spent the night of 16 to 17; the Ferme de la Paix (Farm of the Peace) , that adjoins the castle,where were stationed the mounted Chasseurs of the Guard
  3. Fleurus: St. Victor church , used as a hospital after the fights
  4. Fleurus: the Naveau mill  which served as an observatory to Napoleon, and the monument  that adjoins it, which commemorates the victories the French vistories of 1690, 1794 and 1815
  5. Fleurus: the Zualart castle , Marshal Soult's headquarters
  6. Ligny: the village seen from Prussian batteries  and panorama of the battlefield from General Gérard's corps    
  7. Ligny: the church , the En-Haut farm  [50.51155, 4.57583] defended by the Prussians, the rectory that was used as ambulance  and, between both, the Ruelle du Curé (the Pastor's back street)  through which the French arrived
  8. Ligny: the En-Bas farm  , the last bastion of Prussian resistance, and the street that runs along it  [currently: Generals Gérard and Vandamme Street], through which the Prussians retreated
  9. Ligny: location where the former Count of Looz' feodal castle was  [already half in ruins in 1815, disappeared in 1844]
  10. Ligny: memorial monument to the Emperor's "grognards" (literally "grumblers")  and fortress cannon  commemorating the bicentenary of Napoleon's birth
  11. The Carrefour du Point-du-Jour ("The Dawn crossroads") , northeast of the battlefield, where the Prussians, in their retirement, have veered towards Gembloux
  12. St-Amand: the village and the battlefield  
  13. St-Amand: the village seen from the Prussian batteries  and from the Brye mill  ; the church 
  14. St-Amand: the hamlet of La Haye  and the battlefield 
  15. St-Amand: La Haye farm  , where General Jean-Baptiste Girard was mortally wounded, and the memorial tablet 
  16. St-Amand: location called "Le Hameau"  and the creek "La Ligne" 
  17. Sombreffe: the castle  , HQ of the Prussian IInd Corps prussien under General Georg Dubislav Ludwig von Pirch
  18. Sombreffe: the current church  erected in 1858 in the same place as that having experienced the fights
  19. Sombreffe: the rectory  and its little peaceful interior: cannonball, a witness of fights  and door  having suffered the wrath of Blücher and his sword!
  20. The place called "Trois-Burettes" , northeast of the battlefield, and the eponymous crossroads  where the former Roman way crosses the Namur road
  21. Wagnelée: the village seen from the Brye mill 
Aerial video of the Ligny battlefield Aerial panorama of the Ligny battlefield
 Visited in 2012 and 2015 

Italy LODI (10 May 1796)

The Lombard town of Lodi is located 40 kilometers southeast of Milan [Milano], on the right bank of the Adda river, a tributary of the Po. In 1796, it was connected to the left bank by a large wooden bridge: deck 12 meters wide, nearly two hundred meters long.

The Austrians, who held both banks, retreated to the left bank (northeast) shortly after the start of hostilities, intending to blow up the bridge. The French, having become masters of the right bank (southwest), took the bridge by assault and emerged on the left bank. The enemy was then forced to withdraw without delay towards Crema, to the northeast. As a result General Beaumont, at the head of his horsemen, having found a ford further upstream to cross, arrived too late to attack the Austrian right flank.

  1. Pizzighettone , where General Bonaparte at first thought to cross the river Adda, and the surroundings  of Zorlesco , where the first clashes took place
  2. Lodi: the current bridge  [45.31914, 9.50861] over the river Adda, named in 2003 "Bridge Napoleone Bonaparte", built at about 50 meters downstream of the historic bridge [which was destroyed in 1859]
  3. Lodi: the outlet of the current bridge on the left bank , which was held by the Austrians
  4. Lodi: the river Adda, downstream  and upstream  of the bridge, and further upstream  towards the ford where Beaumont crossed the river
  5. Lodi: the current Piazza della Vittoria  (Piazza Maggiore in 1796) and the Palazzo Modignani  where Napoleon Bonaparte settled his headquarters
  6. After the battle :

  7. Fontana  and Tormo , that the Austrians passed through, during their retreat towards Crema   
  8. The surroundings   of Crespiatica , where the French made their cavalry rest after the battle.
Aerial video of the Lodi battlefield Aerial panorama of the Lodi battlefield
 Visited in 2022 

Germany LÜTZEN (2 May 1813)

Lützen, 20 kilometers west-southwest of Leipzig, gave its name to this battle (except in Germany where it is called Battle of Großgörschen) although no combat took place there, a bit like in Austerlitz, Jena or Waterloo. The battlefield, which lies south of Lützen, is hilly and has remained rural.

  1. Eisdorf : the church 
  2. Großgörschen: the monument to Prince Leopold of Hesse-Homburg, who was killed during the battle 
  3. Großgörschen: the monument to General Scharnhorst, mortally wounded during the battle , and the Schinkel pyramid (named after the Prussian architect who designed this type of monument) 
  4. Großgörschen: a street of the village  and a windmill on the battlefield 
  5. Großgörschen: the Monarchenhügel   [51.19441, 12.18517], two kilometers south of the village, its monument   and the commemorative stele 
  6. Hohenmölsen: general view 
  7. Kaja: the house that served as the HQ of Marshal Ney   
  8. Between Kaja and Starsiedel: the battlefield 
  9. Kleingörschen: the church 
  10. Poserna: the village 
  11. Rahna: some houses in the village  and a view of the battlefield 
  12. The Rippach stream 
  13. Söhesten: the village  and the Mühlberg 
  14. Starsiedel: general view , the church  and the commemorative monument  
  15. Stöntzsch: the location of the former village  [destroyed in 1964 for the purpose of open pit mining], the commemorative stone  and the nearby Floßgraben stream 
  16. Werben: the village  and the battlefield 
Aerial video of the Lützen battlefield Aerial panorama of the Lützen battlefield
 Visited in 2012, 2013, 2016 and 2023 

Italy MARENGO (14 June 1800)

Spinetta Marengo is a Lombard municipality located three kilometers southeast of the walled city of Alessandria. Between them flows (towards the northeast) the Bormida river, a tributary of the Tanaro, which itself flows into the Po. From Marengo the road to Tortona departs eastward, which successively crosses the village of San Giuliano Vecchio and the hamlet of Torre Garofoli. South of this road is Cascina Grossa; to the north, Castelceriolo.

This vast theater of operations is rigorously flat.

  1. Alessandria: views of the citadel  
  2. The Bormida plain  and the battlefield      around Marengo
  3. The river Bormida    and the current bridge which spans it   [built in 1915]
  4. Cascina Grossa: the battlefield and the village , the yard of a farm 
  5. Castelceriolo: the battlefield and the village 
  6. Castelceriolo: the church , a street , the bell tower and roofs of the town 
  7. The Fontanone stream  which winds from south to north across the battlefield
  8. Frugarolo: the church 
  9. Napoleon's plane tree , 400 meters west of Bormida, under which legend has it that the First Consul rested, and its commemorative plaque 
  10. The place called Poggi , a small eminence having served Napoleon as a place of observation
  11. San-Giuliano Vecchio: the village   
  12. Spinetta Marengo: the church of the Nativity of Mary  and the Teodolinda tower 
  13. Spinetta Marengo: memorial column  [44.89403, 8.67060] topped by a bronze eagle  erected in 1801 then reinstalled in 1918
  14. Spinetta Marengo: length statue of the First Consul  in front of the Villa Delavo , by sculptor Benito Cacciatori, inaugurated in 1847
  15. Spinetta Marengo: the Barbotta farm, north of the village  and the Teodolinda tower 
  16. Torre Garofoli: the farm    where General Bonaparte settled his headquarters, and the adjacent church 
A view of the he Marengo battlefield
A view of the he Marengo battlefield
Aerial video of the Marengo battlefield Aerial panorama of the Marengo battlefield
 Visited in 2012 and 2016 

Italy MONDOVI (21 April 1796)

The battle of Mondovì begins at Ceva, in Piedmont, then moves west as the Sardinians retreat under French pressure: San Michele Mondovì, then Vicoforte, finally the hilltop village of Mondovì, 25 kilometers east of Cuneo. All this in a tormented relief.

  1. Panorama from the Bric della Guardia, east of Mondovì      , from where Napoleon Bonaparte studied the places before the battle and at the start of it
  2. The place called Brichetto [or Bricchetto]  , an elevation between Vicoforte to the east and Mondovì to the west
  3. Carassone , one kilometer north of Mondovì, and its church of San Giovanni in Lupazzanio  where General Henri Christian Michel de Stengel rests, mortally wounded during the battle
  4. The Corsaglia river near San Michele Mondovì    and the bridge which spans it at the entrance to the village 
  5. The Ellero River  , which bypasses Mondovì from the west and north
  6. Lesegno: the castle  , Napoleon Bonaparte's headquarters from April 20 to 23
  7. Mondovi: various views of the village    and of the battlefield  seen from the Strada Santa Maria at Vicoforte
  8. Mondovì: The Piazza Maggiore  , some streets in the village    and the Carassone Gate 
  9. San Michele Mondovì: general views of the village   
  10. San Michele Mondovì: the Bicocca redoubt overlooking the village   and panorama from its summit 
  11. Vico [Vicoforte since 1862]: the main street  and the sanctuary  1.5 kilometer southeast
  12. Vicoforte, at a place called La Scapita: the Cascina del Vescovo also known as Cascina Monsignore    [44.38166, 7.88225] where Bonaparte settled to direct operations, and strategic view from this location  
Aerial video of the Mondovi battlefield Aerial panorama of the Mondovi battlefield
 Visited in 2012 and 2016 

Italy MONTEBELLO (9 June 1800)

Montebello della Battaglia is a Lombard town in the Po plain, located thirty kilometers south of Pavia and sixty kilometers west of Piacenza.

The battle took place on both sides of the west-east road leading from Tortona to Piacenza, below the village of Montebello and all around that of Casteggio, located one kilometer east. The fight also raged for the gain of the heights located to the south of the two villages, initially held by the Austrians. The latter, defeated, retreated towards Voghera to the west.

  1. Casteggio: the village   , the Grande Piazza [nowadays Piazza Cavour]  and some streets   
  2. The heights of Casteggio   
  3. The river Coppa  and a bridge over it 
  4. Montebello della Battaglia: the village   and the commemorative plaque affixed to the town hall  [45.00061, 9.10369]
  5. Montebello della Battaglia: the battlefield  in the plain, and seen from the village 
Aerial video of the Montebello battlefield Aerial panorama of the Montebello battlefield
 Visited in 2012, 2014 and 2016 

Italy MONTENOTTE, MILLESIMO, COSSERIA and DEGO (12 to 15 April 1796)

The fighting, inaugurating the first Italian campaign, took place northwest of Savona, in Liguria, successively on April 12, 1796 at Montenotte Superiore, on April 13 at Millesimo and Cosseria, finally on April 14 and 15 at Dego.

In all these places, the terrain is mountainous and heavily wooded.

  1. The river Bormida di Millesimo    
  2. The river Bormida di Pallare  
  3. The pass of Cadibona [Bocchetta di Altare] [44.33426, 8.34913], at 458 meters above sea level   east-southeast of Altare
  4. Cairo Montenotte: overall view  from Cengio, and downton   
  5. Carcare: overall views  
  6. Carcare: the bridge over the river Bormida di Pallare  and the Casa Ferrero , Napoléon Bonaparte's headquarters during the operations of Millesimo, Dego and Cosseria
  7. Cosseria: the hill   topped by the castle , the ruins of the castle   and panoramic views from the later     
  8. Dego: the village , its surroundings  and the main street 
  9. Dego: the bridge over the river Bormida di Spigno 
  10. Dego: views of Cua      , a hamlet overlooking the river Bormida, location of the ancient castle, of which only the ruins of the tower remain 
  11. Dego: the Magliani Hill  , one kilometer northeast of Dego as the crow flies, which was fortified as a redoubt
  12. Millesimo: overall views    and the bridge [Ponte della Gaietta] over the river Bormida 
  13. Millesimo: the castle  and some streets   of the city
  14. Millesimo: the Del Carretto family's home [nowadays the town hall]    [44.36437, 8.20583], Bonaparte's HQ in the evening of April 13, after the battle
  15. Montenotte Inferiore [Ferriera] 
  16. Montenotte Superiore: the battlefield   , which is heavily wooded and hilly
  17. Montenotte Superiore: the commemorative monument "Cippo di Napoleone"  at the place called "Cassinassa" and the nearby plaque 
  18. Montenotte Superiore: the Bric Menau , in front of the Il Parazzin farm, and views from that location  
  19. Montenotte Superiore: the Monte San Giorgio and the Monte Pra  
  20. Montenotte Superiore: the village  [44.38796, 8.40034] and the memorial monument 
  21. Montenotte Superiore: the hamlet called Naso di Gatto 
  22. Southwest of Montenotte Superiore: the Monte Negino [sometimes called Monte Legino in period documents}    peaking at 704 meters, whose redoubt was heroically defended by colonel Rampon and his men, and views from that location  
Aerial video of the Montenotte, Millesimo, Cosseria & Dego battlefields Aerial panorama of the Montenotte, Millesimo, Cosseria & Dego battlefields
 Visited in 2012-2013 

France MONTEREAU (18 February 1814)

and preliminary fights of Mormant and Villeneuve-le-Comte

The preliminary combats took place in the plain of Brie, around Mormant, Grandpuits, then heading south to Valjouan, Villeneuve-le-Comte [today Villeneuve-les-Bordes] and Orvilliers.

The decisive battle engulfed Montereau [now Montereau-Fault-Yonne], a town located at the confluence of the rivers Yonne and Seine, and the suburbs overlooking it to the north: Surville (totally distorted in the 1960s and 1970s by the establishment of large complexes designed by architects whose name it is charitable to forget) and Villaron (which became a small suburban area: Les Ormeaux).

  1. The Ancoeur farm  (combat of Mormant)
  2. Forges 
  3. Grandpuits  and its surroundings  (combat of Mormant)
  4. Montereau: bridges over the river Seine  and the river Yonne 
  5. Montereau: the Saint-Martin priory 
  6. Montereau: plateau of Surville 
  7. Montereau: general view of the city and the confluent, from the heights of Surville  and the tablet  [48.39121, 2.96057] commemorating the bravery of the Emperor
  8. Montereau: equestrian statue of Napoleon  , by Charles Pierre Victor Pajol, located near the confluent
  9. Montereau: statue of General Henri Gatien Bertrand  erected in 2007 on the climb towards Surville
  10. Mormant: downtown  and the road to Nangis 
  11. Orvilliers 
  12. The Les Pleux farm  (combat of Mormant)
  13. Salins , where Marshal Victor made an untimely halt according to Napoleon
  14. Valjouan  (combat of Mormant)
  15. Villeneuve-le-Comte [nowadays Villeneuve-les-Bordes] 
 Visited in 2012-2014 

France MONTMIRAIL-MARCHAIS (11 February 1814)

The town of Montmirail is located at the intersection of the northeast-southwest road linking Château-Thierry to Troyes and the east-west road leading from Châlons-en-Champagne to Paris. It was on either side of the latter, to the west of Montmirail, that the fighting took place, in particular in the territory of the commune of Marchais-en-Brie..

  1. The Bailly woods , where fierce fighting were held
  2. La Chaise farm 
  3. Les Chouteaux farm 
  4. The Courmont farm , the monument commemorating the battles that took place there  and the battlefield nearby 
  5. The Courmont woods  where several Russian squares were routed
  6. Fontenelle-en-Brie, north of the battlefield: the church 
  7. The Grange-en-chart farm 
  8. The Greneaux farm  [48.89562, 3.48089], where Napoléon slept after the battle, and small monument commemorating the event 
  9. The Haute-Epine: in this hamlet   Napoléon settled his headquarters in the evening following the battle
  10. Marchais-en-Brie: the village  , that was at the heart of the fighting
  11. Marchais-en-Brie: the church  
  12. Marchais-en-Brie: the Cour d'Airain farm  , at the heart of the battle, and its commemorative tablet 
  13. Marchais-en-Brie: the battlefield  and the orientation table 
  14. La Meulière 
  15. Between Montcoupot and Le Tremblay, by the side of the road to Paris: memorial column   erected in 1866 at the location where Napoleon stood during the battle
  16. Montmirail: general view  and the castle  where the Emperor took his breakfast in the morning before the battle
  17. The Plénois farm , at the right wing of the French positions
  18. The Prelle farm , between Fontenelle and the road to Paris
  19. Le Tremblay: the hamlet , where the confrontation was particularly violent, view from it , and memorial column to the Imperial army 
Aerial video of the Montmirail battlefield Aerial panorama of the Montmirail battlefield
 Visited in 2019

Israel MOUNT TABOR (16 April 1799)

Warmest thanks to Mrs. Eva-Elise Grau, who gave us the photo of Mount Tabor that she took in 2012.

  1. The plain of Esdraelon or Jezreel valley [Emek Yizreel] where most of the fighting took place  
  2. Fouli [Afula]: the rare remains of the village from the time 
  3. The road   and the battlefield    between Fouli [Afula] and Noures or Nuris
  4. The Mount Tabor    which dominates the battlefield (no combat having taken place on the mountain itself)
  5. Location where the former village of Noures or Nuris was located   [destroyed in 1948], southeast of the battlefield
  6. Panorama of the battlefield from the location of Noures or Nuris    
  7. After the battle:

  8. The Medjameh bridge [Gesher]   which spans the Jordan river   south of Lake Tiberias , through which some of the surviving Ottomans fled
  9. The Franciscan hospice Casa Nova in Nazareth   which sheltered generals Bonaparte, Kléber and Junot on the evening of the battle
 Visited in 2018 

Spain OCAÑA (19 November 1809) and preliminary fight of Ontigola

Ocaña is a large town in Castile 65 kilometers south of Madrid and 50 kilometers east of Toledo, which at the time had some 1,000 houses and 5,000 inhabitants.

The battlefield, arid and hilly (especially in the northeast with the Meseta de Ocaña), is crossed from east to west by a stream, named Arroyo de los Yesares.

  1. The stream Arroyo de les Yesares  and the position of the guard of King Joseph  on the right bank
  2. Ocaña: the heights to the northeast of the city   
  3. Ocaña: the battlefield on the road to Cabaña  to the northeast and that of Noblejas   to the east
  4. Ocaña: general view from the road to Noblejas , and battlefield northeast of the city 
  5. Ocaña: the tower of the San Martin church  [39.96167, -3.49845], the Plaza Mayor  and some streets downtown  
  6. Ontigola: the village  and its church 
  7. Ontigola: the battlefield    where the cavalries confronted each other on November 18
Aerial video of the Ocaña battlefield Aerial panorama of the Ocaña battlefield
 Visited in 2015 

Poland PUŁTUSK (26 December 1806)

Pułtusk [the crossed out "l" is pronounced like the w in Waterloo...] is a town in Mazovia, Poland, about 70 kilometers north of Warsaw [Warszawa], on the Narew River.

  1. Mosin: the battlefield  and a forest, north of the hamlet  [the forest southeast of the later, where fierce fighting were held, no longer exists]
  2. Pułtusk: the house  where Napoléon settled his HQ in the evening following the battle, at Market Place [Rynek] 29. The City Hall, at the other end of the place 
  3. Pułtusk: the river Narew  and an arm of the river crossing the city 
  4. Pułtusk: the roads to Golymin , to Makow (proximal portion, which is no longer used , and its junction with the current road ), to Nasielsk  and to Rozan 
 Not visited yet 

Egypt PYRAMIDS (21 July 1798)

Many thanks to Mr. Yves Maillet for the photos he provided us to put on the website.

The battlefield, made mainly of sand dunes, was located on the left (west) bank of the Nile [نهر النيل], at 13 kilometers north-northeast of the Pyramids of Giza [مجمع أهرامات الجيزة], all around the fortified village of Embabeh [إمبابة]. Today it is included in the gigantic metropolis of Cairo [القاهرة].

  1. Giza: the pyramids  
  2. Giza: the Sphinx  
  3. The banks of the Nile     such as those which bordered the battlefield at the time
 Visited in 2015 and 2019 

Belgium QUATRE-BRAS (16 June 1815)

Many thanks to Mr. Dominique Timmermans, who made us discover this battlefield in 2015.

The Quatre-Bras, at Baisy-Thy, is a strategic road crossroads in Walloon Brabant, at the intersection of the road from Nivelles to Namur and that from Brussels to Charleroi. The fighting took place mainly on either side of the latter, south of the crossroads.

The land was at the time more wooded than today, forests offered by William I of the Netherlands to the Duke of Wellington following the victory of Waterloo (in particular the Bossu woods, in the heart of the battle) having been shot for profit; many hedges have also disappeared.

  1. Frasnes and the southside of the battlefield 
  2. The Gémioncourt farm   , which saw heavy fighting
  3. The Grand-Pierrepont [Pierpont] farm  , a bastion held by the Orange-Nassau regiment
  4. The Monument to the Belgians , and the battlefield seen from that location 
  5. The Monument to the British and Hanovrian troops 
  6. The Monument to the Dutch cavalry  
  7. The Monument to Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel , erected by the Brunswick State for the 75th anniversary, near the place where he was killed during the battle, and the bronze lion at its top 
  8. The Petit-Pierrepont farm , that the French succeeded in taking, and the battlefield seen from that place 
  9. The Quatre-Bras farm . During our visit in 2015, it was the only period building still standing at the crossroads [50.57142, 4.45326] of the same name, which was held by the allies during the battle. Unfortunately, the money of real estate developers is more powerful than the memorial issue, and it was razed in October 2016...
 Visited in 2022 

Germany REICHENBACH and MARKERSDORF (22 May 1813)

These two Saxon villages are located to the east of the battlefield of Bautzen (this fight constituting the continuation, the day after the victory, in order to pursue the Allies in retreat towards the town of Görlitz and the river Neisse). The battlefield, quite hilly and wooded, is for Napoleon himself the easternmost in the Campaign in Saxony.

  1. The Hoterberg, a hill southeast of the village of Holtendorf, from which the Russian cannonball was fired  , and the commemorative panel 
  2. Markersdorf: the Hanspach farm  [51.145733, 14.88115], the room where General Duroc died (in the courtyard, center of the image)  and the commemorative plaque 
  3. Markersdorf: the field  where a square taking of arms was held the next day, in honor of Géraud Christophe Michel Duroc
  4. Markersdorf: the memorial at the place where Duroc was hit   and General Kirgener's grave 
  5. Between Reichenbach and Markersdorf: the heights of the battlefield 
  6. Reichenbach: the house where Napoleon stayed  and the commemorative plaque 
  7. Reichenbach: the Niederhof , the place where Napoleon was
  8. Reichenbach: the Töpferberg  where Duke Eugene of Württemberg stood
  9. East of Reichenbach, on the road to Markersdorf: the medieval bridge  which was used during the fighting
 Visited in 2012-2013 

France REIMS (13 March 1814)

The violent battles, in which the "Marie-Louise", French conscripts of the classes 1814 and 1815, heroically participated, took place on the left bank of the river Vesle, which waters Reims: first towards Rosnay, then on the heights of Tinqueux, around Mont-Saint-Pierre, finally in the suburbs to the south-east of the city. The Emperor directed the fighting from the top of Sainte-Geneviève hill, still in Tinqueux.

Nowadays, Mont Saint-Pierre is under threat from a sprawling commercial zone, and on Sainte-Geneviève hill we have only 2.5 hectares of a public garden left, sufficient however to arouse emotion in memory. of the sacrifice of these young French people.

  1. Mont-Saint-Pierre  , on the heights of Tinqueux, and its memorial obelisk 
  2. Reims: the City Hall  and the Cathedral 
  3. The Sainte-Geneviève hill  [today Parc de la Cure d'air] [49.24675, 4.00848], from where the Emperor directed the fights and where he bivouacked the evening following the battle. The tablet honoring, there, the fallen "Marie-Louises" (youngest French soldiers)  is unfortunately in a pitiful state, unworthy of the honor due to them.
  4. The river Vesle , between Fismes and Reims.
 Visited in 2022 

Allemagne RIPPACH (WEIßENFELS) (1st May 1813)

Rippach is a Saxon village located six kilometers southeast of Lützen. It was on its heights, on the edge of a small wood, that Marshal Bessières was mortally wounded by a cannonball.

  1. Rippach: aerial view of the village 
  2. Rippach: the battlefield on the road to Weissenfels 
  3. Rippach: the inn "Zum Weißen Schwan" ("The White Swan")  where Napoleon and Marshal Bessières spoke for the last time, on the morning of the 1st, and the commemorative plaque 
  4. Rippach: the field where Marshal Bessières was mortally wounded  and a view from this place 
  5. Rippach: the stele erected at the place [51.22674, 12.06873] where the marshal was mortally wounded   and the path by which he was evacuated 
  6. Rippach: the weaver's house where the marshal was taken in agony  
Aerial video of the Rippach (+ Lützen) battlefield Aerial panorama of the Rippach (+ Lützen) battlefield
 Visited in 2012, 2013, 2016 and 2023 

Italy RIVOLI (14 and 15 January 1797)

Rivoli Veronese is a village in Veneto located east of Lake Garda, 25 kilometers north-northwest of Verona, on the right (west) bank of the Adige River, in a mountainous area.

The battlefield [unfortunately crossed today by the Modena-Brenner highway] is located to the north of the village, from the foothills of Monte Baldo to the banks of the Adige. Some fighting also took place to the south, on Monte Pipolo.

  1. Rivoli Veronese: the village    and its church 
  2. Rivoli Veronese: the battlefield      between the village and the Monte Baldo
  3. Rivoli Veronese: the memorial monument [45.58098, 10.82115] in 2013  and 2016 , which has been erected in 1807 and rebuilt in 1917-1918 
  4. The Adige River   , which meanders  east of Rivoli
  5. North of Rivoli: Zuane Osteria , the Trambasore Heights  , the valley of Caprino , San Martino   (place of the last fighting on the 15th) then the foothills of Monte Baldo 
  6. North-northeast of Rivoli: the pass of Incanale , San Marco  [fortified at the end of the 19th century], the Monte Magnone 
  7. Southwest of Rivoli: the hamlet of Tiffaro [Fiffaro] , and, further on, the village of Affi 
  8. South of Rivoli: the Monte Pipolo 
  9. The stream Tasso  , which bypasses Rivoli from the west [dry during our visits in summer]
Aerial video of the Rivoli battlefield Aerial panorama of the Rivoli battlefield
 Visited in 2017 

Portugal ROLIÇA (17 August 1808)

Many thanks to Mrs. Florence Thévenot († 2021) for the photos she provided us to put on the website.

Roliça is a village in central Portugal, some 80 kilometers north of Lisbon [Lisboa].

The battlefield is made up of wooded ridges, arranged around the village, in a horseshoe opening to the northeast on a valley leading to the fortified town of Óbidos.

  1. Roliça : the church   [39.31375, -9.18290] and some streets    in the village
  2. Surroundings of Roliça: hills of the battlefield   
  3. The valley  leading to Óbidos 
 Visited in 2012-2013 

France ROTHIÈRE (LA-) (1st February 1814)

La Rothière is a vast battlefield, south of that of Brienne-le-Château, essentially on the right bank of the river Aube (with some Allied overflows on the left bank). It is a plain limited to the north by the road leading from Brienne-la-Vieille to Morvilliers, to the east by the woods and marshes of Soulaines, to the south by Eclance and the Trannes gorge, to the west by the Aube (which several bridges allow you to cross: from north to south, at Brienne-la-Vieille, at Dienville, at Unienville, at Juvanzé and at Trannes). In the center: the village of La Rothière, on the road leading from Brienne to Bar-sur-Aube, flanked to the east by the hamlets of Petit-Mesnil and La Giberie and to the northeast by those of Chaumesnil and La Chaise .

The violent fighting, which resulted in comparable losses on both sides, was followed by an orderly French retreat towards Brienne, to the north, then Lesmont or Rosnay-l'Hôpital.

  1. The Ajou woods  near Chaumesnil
  2. The river Aube 
  3. The forest of Beaulieu  at Petit-Mesnil
  4. The Beauvoir farm  near whom Marshal Marmont clashed with the Austrians
  5. Location of the former Beugné farm [which no longer exists] 
  6. Bossancourt  where Blücher's reserve was stationed
  7. Brienne-la-Vieille  where Marshal Oudinot settled his troops before the battle
  8. La Chaise 
  9. Chauménil [Chaumesnil] 
  10. Dienville: downtown  and the bridge over the river Aube 
  11. Eclance , at the right wing of the Allied positions
  12. La Gibrie [La Giberie]: the hamlet 
  13. Juvenzé [Juvanzé] 
  14. Lesmont: the wooden hall 
  15. Morvilliers: the village  and its surroundings 
  16. Petit-Ménil [Petit-Mesnil]: the church and the cemetery 
  17. La Rothière: the church  and the memorial monument  
  18. La Rothière: the battlefield  
  19. Rosnay-l'Hôpital  where Marshal Marmont had to withdraw behind the river Voire 
  20. Woods and ponds around the road to Soulaines  
  21. Trannes , at the left wing of Blücher's positions
  22. Unienville: the church  and the bridge 
Aerial video of the La Rothière battlefield Aerial panorama of the La Rothière battlefield
 Visited in 2016 

Italy ROVERETO (4 September 1796)

Rovereto (sometimes spelled Roveredo at the time, and named Röwern in Germanic language) is a town in Trentino, 25 kilometers south of Trento, east of the northern tip of Lake Garda. Located on the left (east) bank of the Adige, near the confluence with the Leno river, its strategic location is of high importance since it commands access to the valley of this river, which then descends south towards Rivoli Veronese and Verona.

  1. Valley of the Arsa [Vallarsa] : the heights 
  2. Calliano , 8 kilometers northeast of Rovereto
  3. Marco , south of Rovereto, on the left bank of the Adige
  4. Mori, a village south-southeast of Rovereto, on the right bank of the Adige: the main street  and Cameras Creek [now channeled] 
  5. Rovereto: the river Leno and the Castel Veneto 
  6. Serravalle , south of Marco
Aerial video of the Rovereto battlefield Aerial panorama of the Rovereto battlefield
 Visited in 2017 

Spain SALAMANCA (22 July 1812)

Many thanks to Mrs. Florence Thévenot († 2021) for the photos she provided us to put on the website.

The Battle of Salamanca is called Battle of the Arapiles by the French. The fighting took place a few kilometers southeast of the city (capital of the province of the same name, located today in the southwest of the region of Castile and León).

The battlefield is an arid plain, to the east of the village of Arapiles, overlooked by several hills, in particular the Arapil Chico to the north, the Arapil Grande to the south, the peak of Miranda and the Teso de Aldeatejada to the west, and a little hermitage called Nuestra Señora de la Peña to the east, near the village of Calvarrasa de Arriba. The retreat of the French will be towards Alba de Tormes, to the south-east, then Garcihernandez.

  1. The two Arapiles , seen from the road [40.89336, -5.62536] separating them
  2. The Arapil Chico    
  3. The Arapil Grande    and the commemorative monument upon it 
  4. The village called Arapiles   , its church , the commemorative plaque  and the battlefield around 
  5. Calvarrasa de Arriba: the church  and the battlefield   southwest from the village
  6. Miranda de Azán: the village , the Miranda Peak   nearby, the commemorative plaque  and the battlefield around   
  7. Nuestra Señora de la Peña: the chapel     located on a rocky outcrop  where was the artillery under the command of General Foy, the commemorative plaque  and the panorama   from this strategic point
  8. The Teso de Aldeatejada  
  9. The Teso de San Miguel , observation post of General Wellesley (then Earl of Wellington)
  10. The Testón de la Cabaña   
  11. Las Torres: the church  and the commemorative plaque 
  12. After the battle:

  13. Alba de Tormes: general view of the city , the bridge , the river Tormes , the fort overlooking the city  
  14. Garcia-Hernandez [Garcihernández]  , further east.
The Salamanca battlefield
The Salamanca battlefield
Aerial video of the Salamanca battlefield Aerial panorama of the Salamanca battlefield
 Visited in 2016 

Spain SOMOSIERRA (30 November 1808)

The Somosierra pass, culminating at 1438 meters, is one of the rare passages allowing you to reach Madrid from the north (Burgos), through the Sierra de Guadarrama. The road which leads there, oriented north-south, was at the time moderately winding [much less today, having benefited from widenings and rectifications in the 20th century, due to its status as a national road].

The battlefield consists of the road itself and its sides, all on average about thirty meters wide, over its last two kilometers. On the right (west), slightly below, a stream named El Duratón; on the left (east), the slopes of Peña Cebollera. The road is currently unused (except for access to plots of land), since a highway overlooks it to the west (participating, with many high-voltage line pylons and a railway line, in the visual distortion of the site)...

  1. The Sierra de Ayllón  , east of the pass
  2. The Duratón   , which flows along the road leading to the pass
  3. Somosierra: the road leading to the pass, seen from the French positions as the Polish cavalry advances towards the pass    , and from the Spanish positions at the top of the pass 
  4. Somosierra: the chapel Nuestra Señora de la Soledad  built at the top of the pass in the first half of the 17th century, its commemorative plaques recalling the bravery of General Benito de San Juan  and that of the Polish horsemen , and its stained glass window  offered by the Polish authorities
  5. Somosierra: the parish church Nuestra Señora de las Nieves  [consecrated in 1703, it suffered heavy damage during the battle], and the pass [41.13496, -3.58095] seen from the south .
Aerial video of the Somosierra battlefield Aerial panorama of the Somosierra battlefield
 Visited in 2015 

Germany ULM (17 October 1805)

It was more of a siege of the city than a proper battle, although heavy fighting took place. The strategic points were located to the north of the city (Michelsberg and Frauensberg hills)

  1. Pfaffenhofen: the Aussere inn  where Napoléon stayed
  2. Ulm: general view of the old town   and the Cathedral (Münster) [48.39851, 9.99149] 
  3. Ulm: the Michaelsberg  and the Frauenberg  , overlooking the city at the north side
 Visited in 2023 

Italy VALVASONE (Tagliamento crossing) (16 March 1797)

The battlefield includes the two banks of the Tagliamento, a wide but shallow river at this location, as well as the plain on the left bank, to the east of the river, with its villages which were taken one by one by the French.

  1. Biauzzo (left bank of the Tagliamento): aerial view 
  2. Camino (left bank): aerial view of the village  and the surrounding battlefield 
  3. Gorizzo (left bank): aerial view 
  4. Gradisca (left bank): aerial view 
  5. Pozzo (left bank): the main street and the church 
  6. Rivis (left bank): aerial view 
  7. The Tagliamento River: the right bank (west)    where the French arrived, the place [around 45.98692, 12.91019] where they forded , and the left bank (east)      where they overthrew the Austrians
  8. Turrida (left bank): aerial view 
  9. After the battle :

  10. Valvasone: the "palace" of Count Eugenio  [45.99613, 12.86428], General Bonaparte's headquarters, the castle  just opposite, and its little theater  where Napoleon attended a performance.
Aerial video of the Valvasone (Tagliamento) battlefield Aerial panorama of the Valvasone (Tagliamento) battlefield
 Visited in 2012-2013 

France VAUCHAMPS (14 February 1814)

The village of Vauchamps is located east of Montmirail, on the road which leads to Champaubert, Etoges and Châlons-en-Champagne.

The fighting took place in the streets of Vauchamps itself, then in the woods of Echelle and Hautefeuille, to the north of the latter, finally in Serrechamps, Janvilliers and Fromentières, to the east-northeast.

The later pursuit of the Prussians by the French took place as far as Champaubert and Etoges, even further to the east.

  1. The forest of Beaumont , southwest of Vauchamps
  2. L'Échelle woods 
  3. Fromentières , through which the Prussiens retreated towards Champaubert
  4. Janvilliers , where several Prussian squares were taken while retreating
  5. Serrechamp [Sarrechamps] 
  6. Vauchamps: the village  and the memorial column [48.88122, 3.61538] 
  7. Vauchamps: the battlefield 
Aerial video of the Vauchamps battlefield Aerial panorama of the Vauchamps battlefield
 Visited in 2017 

Portugal VIMEIRO (20 August 1808)

Many thanks to Mrs. Florence Thévenot († 2021) for the photos she provided us to put on the website.

Vimeiro [sometimes shown as "Vimiera" or "Vimeira" in British period texts} is a small town in central Portugal, about a hundred kilometers north of Lisbon [Lisboa].

The battlefield is hilly and moderately wooded.

  1. Vimeiro: the parish São Miguel church 
  2. Vimeiro: the commemorative monument    [39.17623, -9.31594] erected on the eastern slope of the town for the centenary of the battle, and the text  in memory of the liberators
  3. Vimeiro: a series of six magnificent azulejo paintings on the square, respectively illustrating the landing of the Anstruther brigade on August 18, 1808 , that of the Ackland brigade on the 20th , the first two French attacks , the defense of the church during the third attack , the fourth and fifth French attacks  and General Wellesley's HQ 
  4. Vimeiro: a map of the battle in azulejos  near the monument
  5. Vimeiro: the statue of an English soldier 
  6. The battlefield   seen from the town.
 Visited in 2013 

Spain VITORIA (21 June 1813)

The city of Vitoria [Gasteiz], in the Spanish Basque Country, is located at the crossroads of several strategic routes in this mountainous country: to the southwest towards Burgos and Madrid, to the northwest towards Bilbao, to the northeast towards San Sebastian [Donostia] and to the east towards Pamplona, the latter two leading to France.

The battlefield is a basin surrounded by mountains, twenty kilometers by ten. The fighting began to the southwest and west of the city, on both sides of the Zadorra River, a tributary of the Ebro. As the French withdrew, they continued north of the city and into it. Later, the stampede of French troops took place in disorder towards Pamplona, to the east.

  1. Abechuco [Abetxuko] , conquered in the early afternoon by General Graham
  2. Aranguis , on the road to Bilbao, which was held by General Reille
  3. Arbulo , on the road to Pamplona, which saw the French disordered retreat
  4. Ariñiz , 8 kilometers west of Vitoria, and the surrounding hills 
  5. Armentia , where were stationed two French divisions
  6. Arriaga: the church 
  7. Betono , where the French Army of Portugal stopped the enemy's left wing for a while
  8. Durana: the village 
  9. Gamarra Mayor , conquered towards 1 PM by General Graham
  10. Gamarra Menor: the hamlet  and its church 
  11. Gomercha [Gometxa]  and its surroundings , left wing of General Drouet d'Erlon's corps
  12. Jundiz 
  13. Margarita , right wing of General Drouet's corps
  14. The surroundings of Mendiguren  
  15. Puebla , outpost of the French army
  16. Subijana de Alava , conquered by General Hill towards 8 AM
  17. Villodas: the village  and its bridge , right end of the French positions
  18. Vitoria-Gasteiz: Plaza de la Virgen Blanca , and its memorial monument  [42.84653, -2.67331] celebrating the victory of General Wellington's troops
  19. The river Zadorra 
  20. Zuazo: the village 
 Visited in 2014 

Austria WAGRAM (5 and 6 July 1809)

The battlefield is located immediately north of that of Aspern-Essling, in the Marchfeld plain. It is limited to the west by the heights of Gerasdorf; to the north by a stream, the Russbach, whose bed forms a hollow one to two meters deep and whose north bank, after a narrow terrace, continues with an escarpment a few meters high: the Wagram plateau; to the east by the village of Glinzendorf.

  1. Aderklaa: the village  , where fierce street fights happened
  2. Aderklaa: the battlefield around   
  3. Aderklaa: chapel   in memory of fallen soldiers, and column  which celebrates the Saxons under General Bernadotte
  4. Baumersdorf [nowadays Parbarsdorf] , where General Oudinot failed on July 5 in front of General Hardegg's heroic resistance
  5. Bockfliess: the village 
  6. The river Danube [Die Donau]   
  7. Gerasdorf: the village  and the heights  overlooking it, west end of the battlefield
  8. Glinzendorf: the village , at the right wing of French positions, was held by Marshal Davout
  9. Groshofen , right wing of French positions on July 6
  10. Gross Engersdorf , north of Wagram, served as an ammunition park for the Austrians
  11. Gross Enzersdorf , left wing of French positions on July 6
  12. The Marchfeld plain  
  13. Markgrafneusiedl: the tower , overlooking the village
  14. Pillichsdorf: the village , north of Wagram, and the mound  upon whom Emperor Francis I. attended the battle
  15. Raschdorf [Raasdorf]: Napoleon's headquarters  during the battle
  16. The Russbach creek   
  17. Süssenbrunn , that General Oudinot attacked on July 6, at the head of a huge square of 8,000 men
  18. Ulrichskirchen: the castle , which served as a campaign hospital
  19. The plateau of Wagram , taken by Marshals Davout and Macdonald on July 6
  20. Wagram [Deutsch-Wagram]: the church  and the memorial monument 
  21. Wagram [Deutsch-Wagram]: the headquarters of Archduke Charles 
  22. Wolkersdorf: the castle  where stayed Emperor Francis before the battle
 Visited in 2013, 2015 and 2019 

Belgium WATERLOO (18 June 1815)

The battlefield of Waterloo (which is located mainly in the town of Braine l'Alleud) is, to our knowledge, the only one that is protected, with perhaps that of the Pyramids of Giza, but for them it is probably not for reasons of Napoleonic memory.

It has a roughly rectangular shape, on either side of the north-south Brussels-Charleroi road axis, with Mont-Saint-Jean to the north, Papelotte and Frichermont to the east, Belle-Alliance and Plancenoit to the south, the suburbs of Braine l'Alleud to the west. In the center: the Haie-Sainte farm, and a few hectometers to its southwest that of Hougoumont.

Contrary to Victor Hugo's famous verse in L'expiation, the terrain is not a "morne plaine" ("dreary plain"), but, as he describes it two verses later, a "cirque de bois, de coteaux, de vallons" ("cirque of woods, hillsides, valleys"). These undulations also had an importance in the course of the battle: camouflage of troops in hollows, difficulties in moving artillery on muddy and slippery terrain...

  1. The Belle Alliance farm , where Wellington and Blücher met after the battle
  2. Braine l'Alleud: Saint-Etienne church , having served as a campaign hospital
  3. The Lion's Mound [50.67846, 4.40484]  , topped by a cast-iron lion looking towards France , erected by the Dutch ten years after the battle
  4. The battlefield seen from the summit of the Lion's Mound    
  5. The Chantelet farm  , Marshal Ney's HQ during the night from 17 to 18
  6. The De Coster house . De Coster was Napoleon's local guide, and his house hosted the Emperor during Marshal Ney's cavalry charges
  7. Genappe: the street  through which the French retreated in disorder, and the little bridge  over the river Dyle , where Napoleon had to leave his berline
  8. Genappe: the church  and the grave of General Duhesme 
  9. La Haye-Sainte farm [50.67804, 4.41196], seen from the road to Charleroi  and from the summit of the Lion's Mound , and the field in front of it 
  10. Hougoumont farm [50.67067, 4.394478]: south side , west side  and inner courtyard     
  11. Hougoumont farm: the English memorial monument 
  12. Mont-Saint-Jean farm 
  13. Memorial monuments: "The wounded Eagle"   in memory of the "Last Square" of the Imperial troops, the Monument to the Belgians  , the Monument to the Hanovrians , and the Victor Hugo column 
  14. Papelotte farm  , east of the battlefield
  15. Plancenoit: the village  and the battlefield  north of it
  16. Plancenoit: crest  upon which Napoléon set up a great artillery battery
  17. Location of former Rossomme farm  [which no longer exists] and a mound  nearby, which served as an observation point to Napoleon on June 18 in the morning
  18. The Soignes forest, northeast of Waterloo 
  19. Vieux-Genappe: the Caillou farm , Napoléon's headquarters the day before the battle, and bronze statue of the Emperor  erected in 2002 in the adjacent garden
  20. Walhain: Marette farm    where Marshal Grouchy, guest of the notary Höllert, heard the canonnade of the battle while savoring succulent Brabant strawberries 
  21. Waterloo: Wellington's headquarters ; that city gave its name to the battle, although none fight occured there!
The Waterloo battlefield
The battlefield of Waterloo, seen from the top of the Lion's Mound
Aerial video of the Waterloo battlefield Aerial panorama of the Waterloo battlefield
 Visited in 2015 and 2019 

Belgium WAVRE (18 and 19 June 1815)

Many thanks to Mr. Dominique Timmermans, who made us discover this battlefield in 2015.

Wavre is a small town in Walloon Brabant, on the river Dyle, 27 kilometers southeast of Brussels, and above all, historically speaking, 17 kilometers east of the Waterloo battlefield.

The bulk of the fighting took place in the town and on both banks of the Dyle, heading southwest to Bierges and Limal.

  1. Bawette castle , north-northwest of Wavre, where stayed the Third Prussian Corps under Johann Adolf von Thielmann before the battle, and where Marshal Grouchy settled himself, the time to learn the news of the defeat of Waterloo and to decide to retreat
  2. Bierges: the mill   and the monument to General Gérard , who was wounded near that place
  3. La Bourse farm   , southwest of Bierges
  4. The river Dyle  in Bierges
  5. Wavre: the Rue du Commerce, leading to Saint-Jean-Baptiste church , which still bears today stigmates of the fights, and the City Hall (Couvent des Carmes Chaussés until 1797) 
  6. Wavre: the Christ bridge  [50.71476, 4.61057], having been subject to no less than thirteen assaults, the Christ whose side was perforated... by a projectile  and the memorial tablet  on the bridge
 Visited in 2014 

Czech Republic ZNAIM (10 and 11 July 1809)

Znaim [today Znojmo] is a Moravian town 75 kilometers north-northwest of Vienna [Wien], on the Thaya River. The fighting took place to the north, east and south of the town.

  1. Dobschitz 
  2. Oblekovice 
  3. The river Thaya 
  4. Znaim [Znojmo]: downtown  and the bridge over the river Thaya 
  5. Znaim [Znojmo]: the Louka convent 
  6. The plateau of Zuckerhandl [Suchohrdly] 
  7. Zuckerhandl [Suchohrdly]: the cemetery 

Photo credits

  Photos by Lionel A. Bouchon.
  Photos by Marie-Albe Grau.
  Photos by Floriane Grau.
  Photos by Michèle Grau-Ghelardi.
  Photos by Didier Grau.
  Photos by people outside the Napoleon & Empire association.

Video credits

The shots are by Didier Grau, the editing by Lionel A. Bouchon.